This example shows how to design arbitrary group delay filters using the fdesign.arbgrpdelay filter designer. This designer uses a least-Pth constrained optimization algorithm to design allpass IIR filters that meet a prescribed group delay.

fdesign.arbgrpdelay can be used for group delay equalization.

**Arbitrary Group Delay Filter Designer**

You can use fdesign.arbgrpdelay to design an allpass filter with a desired group delay response. The desired group delay is specified in a relative sense. The actual group delay depends on the filter order (the higher the order, the higher the delay). However, if you subtract the offset in the group delay due to the filter order, the group delay of the designed filter tends to match the desired group delay. The following code provides an example using two different filter orders.

N = 8; % Filter order N2 = 10; % Alternate filter order F = [0 0.1 1]; % Frequency vector Gd = [2 3 1]; % Desired group delay R = 0.99; % Pole-radius constraint

Note that in an allpass filter, the numerator is always the reversed version of its denominator. For this reason, you cannot specify different numerator and denominator orders in fdesign.arbgrpdelay.

The following code shows a single band arbitrary group delay design with the desired group delay values, Gd, at the specified frequency points, F. In single band designs you specify the group delay over frequency values that cover the entire Nyquist interval [0 1]*pi rad/sample.

```
h = fdesign.arbgrpdelay('N,F,Gd',N,F,Gd)
```

h = Response: 'Arbitrary Group Delay' Specification: 'N,F,Gd' Description: {3x1 cell} NormalizedFrequency: true FilterOrder: 8 Frequencies: [0 0.1 1] GroupDelay: [2 3 1]

H1 = design(h,'MaxPoleRadius',R, 'SystemObject', true); % Measure the total group delay at a set of frequency points from 0 to 1. % Measure the nominal group delay of the filter using the measure method. Fpoints = 0:0.001:1; M1 = measure (h,H1,Fpoints); % Design another filter with an order equal to N2. h.FilterOrder = N2; H2 = design(h,'MaxPoleRadius',R, 'SystemObject', true); M2 = measure(h,H2,Fpoints); % Plot the measured total group delay minus the nominal group delay. plot(Fpoints, M1.TotalGroupDelay-M1.NomGrpDelay, 'b',... Fpoints, M2.TotalGroupDelay-M2.NomGrpDelay, 'g',... [0 0.1 1], [2 3 1], 'r'); xlabel('Normalized Frequency (\times\pi rad/sample)'); ylabel('Group delay (samples)'); grid on; legend('8th order design','10th order design','desired response')

The following plot shows that the actual group delay of the two designs is different. The significance of this result is that one must find a compromise between a better fit to the desired relative group delay (less ripple) and a larger overall delay in the filter.

hFVT = fvtool(H1,H2,'Analysis', 'grpdelay'); legend(hFVT, '8th order design','10th order design')

**Passband Group Delay Equalization**

The primary use of fdesign.arbgrpdelay is to compensate for nonlinear-phase responses of IIR filters. Since the compensating filter is allpass, it can be cascaded with the filter you want to compensate without affecting its magnitude response. Since the cascade of the two filters is an IIR filter itself, it cannot have linear-phase (while being stable). However, it is possible to have approximately a linear phase response in the passband of the overall filter.

**Lowpass Equalization**

The following example uses fdesign.arbgrpdelay to equalize the group delay response of a lowpass elliptic filter without affecting its magnitude response.

You use a multiband design to specify desired group delay values over one or more bands of interest while leaving the group delay of all other frequency bands unspecified (don't care regions). In this example there is only one band of interest which equals the passband of the lowpass filter. You want to compensate the group delay in this band, and do not care about the resulting group delay values outside of it.

% Design an elliptic filter with a passband frequency of 0.2*pi % rad/sample. Measure the total group delay over the passband. Hellip = design(fdesign.lowpass('N,Fp,Ap,Ast',4,0.2,1,40),... 'ellip', 'SystemObject', true); wncomp = 0:0.001:0.2; g = grpdelay(Hellip,wncomp,2); % samples g1 = max(g)-g; % Design an 8th order arbitrary group delay allpass filter. Use a % multiband design and specify a single band. hgd = fdesign.arbgrpdelay('N,B,F,Gd',8,1,wncomp,g1) Hgd = design(hgd,'iirlpnorm', 'SystemObject', true);

hgd = Response: 'Arbitrary Group Delay' Specification: 'N,B,F,Gd' Description: {4x1 cell} NormalizedFrequency: true FilterOrder: 8 NBands: 1 B1Frequencies: [1x201 double] B1GroupDelay: [1x201 double]

Cascade the original filter with the compensation filter to achieve the desired group delay equalization. Verify by processing white noise and estimating the group delay at the two output stages

samplesPerFrame = 2048; wn = (2/samplesPerFrame) * (0:samplesPerFrame-1); numRealPoints = samplesPerFrame/2 + 1; htfe = dsp.TransferFunctionEstimator('FrequencyRange','onesided',... 'SpectralAverages',64); hplot = dsp.ArrayPlot('PlotType','Line','YLimits',[0 40],... 'YLabel','Group Delay (samples)',... 'XLabel','Normalized Frequency (x pi rad/sample)',... 'SampleIncrement',2/samplesPerFrame,... 'Title',['Original (1), Compensated (2), ',... 'Expected Compensated (3)'], 'ShowLegend', true); gdOrig = grpdelay(Hellip, numRealPoints); gdComp = grpdelay(Hgd, numRealPoints); range = wn < wncomp(end); gdExp = nan(numRealPoints, 1); gdExp(range) = gdOrig(range) + gdComp(range); % Stream random samples through filter cascade Nframes = 300; for k = 1:Nframes x = randn(samplesPerFrame,1); % Input signal = white Gaussian noise y_orig = step(Hellip,x); % Filter noise with original IIR filter y_corr = step(Hgd,y_orig); % Compensating filter Txy = step(htfe,[x, x],[y_orig, y_corr]); gdMeas = HelperMeasureGroupDelay(Txy, [], 20); step(hplot, [gdMeas, gdExp]); end

**Bandpass Equalization**

Design a passband group delay equalizer for a bandpass Chebyshev filter with a passband region in the [0.3 0.4]*pi rad/sample interval. As in the previous example, there is only one band of interest which corresponds to the passband of the filter. Because you want to compensate the group delay in this band and do not care about the resulting group delay values outside of it, you use a multiband design and specify a single band.

% Design a bandpass Chebyshev type-1 filter and measure its total group % delay over the passband. Hcheby1 = design(fdesign.bandpass('N,Fp1,Fp2,Ap',4,0.3,0.4,1),'cheby1', ... 'SystemObject', true); wncomp = 0.3:0.001:0.4; g = grpdelay(Hcheby1,wncomp,2); g1 = max(g)-g; % Design an 8th order arbitrary group delay filter. The pole radius is % constrained to not exceed 0.95. hgd = fdesign.arbgrpdelay('N,B,F,Gd',8,1,wncomp,g1); Hgd = design(hgd,'iirlpnorm','MaxPoleRadius',0.95, 'SystemObject', true); % Cascade the original filter with the compensation filter to achieve the % desired group delay equalization. % Verify by processing white noise and estimating the group delay at the % two output stages gdOrig = grpdelay(Hcheby1, numRealPoints); gdComp = grpdelay(Hgd, numRealPoints); range = wn > wncomp(1) & wn < wncomp(end); gdExp = nan(numRealPoints,1); gdExp(range) = gdOrig(range) + gdComp(range); release(hplot), hplot.YLimits = [0 55]; release(htfe) % Stream random samples through filter cascade for k = 1:Nframes x = randn(samplesPerFrame,1); % Input signal = white Gaussian noise y_orig = step(Hcheby1,x); % Filter noise with original IIR filter y_corr = step(Hgd,y_orig); % Compensating filter Txy = step(htfe,[x, x],[y_orig, y_corr]); gdMeas = HelperMeasureGroupDelay(Txy, [], 20); step(hplot, [gdMeas, gdExp]); end

The resulting filter has one pair of constrained poles. The group delay variation in the passband ([0.3 0.4]*pi rad/sample) is less than 0.2 samples.

**Bandstop Equalization**

Design a passband group delay equalizer for a bandstop Chebyshev filter operating with a sampling frequency of 1 KHz. The bandstop filter has two passband regions in the [0 150] Hz and [200 500] Hz intervals. You want to compensate the group delay in these bands so you use a multiband design and specify two bands.

% Design a bandstop Chebyshev type-2 filter and measure its total group % delay over the passbands. Convert the measured group delay to seconds % because fdesign.arbgrpdelay expects group delay specifications in seconds % when you specify a sampling frequency. Fs = 1e3; Hcheby2 = design(fdesign.bandstop('N,Fst1,Fst2,Ast',6,150,400,1,Fs), ... 'cheby2', 'SystemObject', true); f1 = 0.0:0.5:150; % Hz g1 = grpdelay(Hcheby2,f1,Fs).'/Fs; % seconds f2 = 400:0.5:Fs/2; % Hz g2 = grpdelay(Hcheby2,f2,Fs).'/Fs; % seconds maxg = max([g1 g2]); % Design a 14th order arbitrary group delay allpass filter. The pole % radius is constrained to not exceed 0.95. The group delay specifications % are given in seconds and the frequency specifications are given in Hertz. hgd = fdesign.arbgrpdelay('N,B,F,Gd',14,2,f1,maxg-g1,f2,maxg-g2,Fs); Hgd = design(hgd,'iirlpnorm','MaxPoleRadius',0.95, 'SystemObject', true); % Cascade the original filter with the compensation filter to process % white noise and estimate the group delay at the two output stages gdOrig = grpdelay(Hcheby2, numRealPoints); gdComp = grpdelay(Hgd, numRealPoints); fcomp = (Fs/samplesPerFrame) * (0:samplesPerFrame-1); range = (fcomp>f1(1) & fcomp<f1(end)) | (fcomp>f2(1) & fcomp<f2(end)); gdExp = nan(numRealPoints,1); gdExp(range) = gdOrig(range) + gdComp(range); release(hplot), hplot.YLimits = [0 40]; hplot.SampleIncrement = Fs/samplesPerFrame; hplot.YLabel = 'Group Delay (samples)'; hplot.XLabel = 'Frequency (Hz)'; release(htfe) % Stream random samples through filter cascade Nframes = 300; for k = 1:Nframes x = randn(samplesPerFrame,1); % Input signal = white Gaussian noise y_orig = step(Hcheby2,x); % Filter noise with original IIR filter y_corr = step(Hgd,y_orig); % Compensating filter Txy = step(htfe,[x, x],[y_orig, y_corr]); gdMeas = HelperMeasureGroupDelay(Txy, [], 12); step(hplot, [gdMeas, gdExp]); end

The resulting filter has one pair of constrained poles. The passbands have a group delay variation of less than 3 samples.

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