Hydraulic variable orifice created by cylindrical spool and sleeve

Hydraulic Elements

The Variable Area Hydraulic Orifice block models
a variable orifice created by a cylindrical sharp-edged spool and
a variable-area slot in a sleeve. The area of the orifice is expected
to be computed outside the block and imported via the AR physical
signal connection. The **Minimum area** parameter
specifies the minimum orifice area value. If the input signal falls
below this level (for example, turns negative), the area is saturated
to this value. The flow rate through the orifice is proportional to
the orifice area and the pressure differential across the orifice.

The flow rate is determined according to the following equations:

$$q={C}_{D}\cdot A\sqrt{\frac{2}{\rho}}\cdot \frac{p}{{\left({p}^{2}+{p}_{cr}^{2}\right)}^{1/4}}$$

$$p={p}_{A}-{p}_{B}$$

$${p}_{cr}=\frac{\rho}{2}{\left(\frac{{\mathrm{Re}}_{cr}\cdot \nu}{{C}_{D}\cdot {D}_{H}}\right)}^{2}$$

$${D}_{H}=\sqrt{\frac{4A}{\pi}}$$

where

q | Flow rate |

p | Pressure differential |

p_{A}, p_{B} | Gauge pressures at the block terminals |

C_{D} | Flow discharge coefficient |

A | Orifice passage area |

D_{H} | Orifice hydraulic diameter |

ρ | Fluid density |

ν | Fluid kinematic viscosity |

p_{cr} | Minimum pressure for turbulent flow |

Re_{cr} | Critical Reynolds number |

The block positive direction is from port A to port B. This means that the flow rate is positive if it flows from A to B and the pressure differential is determined as $$p={p}_{A}-{p}_{B}$$.

Fluid inertia is not taken into account.

**Flow discharge coefficient**Semi-empirical parameter for orifice capacity characterization. Its value depends on the geometrical properties of the orifice, and usually is provided in textbooks or manufacturer data sheets. The default value is

`0.7`

.**Critical Reynolds number**The maximum Reynolds number for laminar flow. The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is assumed to take place when the Reynolds number reaches this value. The value of the parameter depends on the orifice geometrical profile. You can find recommendations on the parameter value in hydraulics textbooks. The default value is

`12`

, which corresponds to a round orifice in thin material with sharp edges.**Minimum area**Leakage area of the completely closed orifice. If the input signal falls below this level (for example, turns negative), the area is saturated to this value. The parameter value must be greater than zero. The default value is

`1e-12`

m^2.

Use the **Variables** tab in the block dialog
box (or the **Variables** section in the block Property
Inspector) to set the priority and initial target values for the block
variables prior to simulation. For more information, see Set Priority and Initial Target for Block Variables.

Parameters determined by the type of working fluid:

**Fluid density****Fluid kinematic viscosity**

Use the Hydraulic Fluid block or the Custom Hydraulic Fluid block to specify the fluid properties.

The block has the following ports:

`A`

Hydraulic conserving port associated with the orifice inlet.

`B`

Hydraulic conserving port associated with the orifice outlet.

`AR`

Physical signal port that provides the value of the orifice area.

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