Bidirectional DC-DC Converter

Controller-driven bidirectional DC-DC step-up and step-down voltage regulator

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Description

The Bidirectional DC-DC Converter block represents a converter that steps up or steps down DC voltage from either side of the converter to the other as driven by an attached controller and gate-signal generator. Bidirectional DC-DC converters are useful for switching between energy storage and use, for example, in electric vehicles.

The Bidirectional DC-DC Converter block allows you to model a nonisolated converter with two switching devices or an isolated converter with six switching devices. Options for the type of switching devices are:

  • GTO — Gate turn-off thyristor. For information on the I-V characteristic of the device, see GTO.

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — For information on the I-V characteristic of the device, see Ideal Semiconductor Switch.

  • IGBT — Insulated-gate bipolar transistor. For information on the I-V characteristic of the device, see IGBT (Ideal, Switching).

  • MOSFET — N-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. For information on the I-V characteristic of the device, see MOSFET (Ideal, Switching).

  • Thyristor — For information on the I-V characteristic of the device, see Thyristor (Piecewise Linear).

Model

There are two model variants for the block. To access the model variants, in the model window, right-click the block. From the context menu, select Simscape > Block choices.

The model variants are:

  • Nonisolated converter — Bidirectional DC-DC converter without an electrical barrier. This model variant contains an inductor, two capacitors, and two switches that are of the same device type. This block choice is the default.

  • Isolated converter — Bidirectional DC-DC converter with an electrical barrier. This model variant contains four additional switches that form a full bridge. The full bridge is on the input or high-voltage (HV) side of the converter. The other two switches are on the output or low-voltage (LV) side of the converter. You can select different semiconductor types for the HV and LV switching devices. For example, you can use a GTO for the HV switching devices and an IGBT for the LV switching devices. To provide separation between the input and output voltages, the model uses a high-frequency transformer.

Protection

The block contains an integral protection diode for each switching device. The integral diode protects the semiconductor device by providing a conduction path for reverse current. An inductive load can produce a high reverse-voltage spike when the semiconductor device suddenly switches off the voltage supply to the load.

To configure the internal protection diode block, use the Protection Diode parameters. This table shows how to set the Model dynamics parameter based on your goals.

GoalsValue to SelectIntegral Protection Diode
Prioritize simulation speed.Protection diode with no dynamicsThe Diode block
Prioritize model fidelity by precisely specifying reverse-mode charge dynamics.Protection diode with charge dynamicsThe dynamic model of the Diode block

You can also include a snubber circuit for each switching device. Snubber circuits contain a series-connected resistor and capacitor. They protect switching devices against high voltages that inductive loads produce when the device turns off the voltage supply to the load. Snubber circuits also prevent excessive rates of current change when a switching device turns on.

To include and configure a snubber circuit for each switching device, use the Snubbers parameters.

Gate Control

To connect Simulink® gate-control voltage signals to the gate ports of the switching devices:

  1. Convert each voltage signal using a Simulink-PS Converter block.

  2. Multiplex the converted gate signals into a single vector. For a nonisolated converter model, use a Two-Pulse Gate Multiplexer block. For an isolated converter model, use a Six-Pulse Gate Multiplexer block.

  3. Connect the vector signal to the G port.

Assumptions

A source impedance or a nonzero equivalent-series resistance (ESR) is connected to the left side of the Bidirectional DC-DC Converter block.

Ports

Conserving

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Electrical conserving port associated with the gate terminals of the switching devices.

Data Types: double

Electrical conserving port associated with the positive terminal of the first DC voltage.

Data Types: double

Electrical conserving port associated with the negative terminal of the first DC voltage.

Data Types: double

Electrical conserving port associated with the positive terminal of the second DC voltage.

Data Types: double

Electrical conserving port associated with the negative terminal of the second DC voltage.

Data Types: double

Parameters

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Switching Devices

These tables show how the visibility of Switching Devices parameters depends on the converter model and switching devices that you select. To learn how to read the table, see Parameter Dependencies.

Nonisolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies

Parameters and Options
Switching device
Ideal Semiconductor SwitchGTOIGBTMOSFETThyristor
On-state resistanceForward voltageForward voltageDrain-source on resistanceForward voltage
Off-state conductanceOn-state resistanceOn-state resistanceOff-state conductanceOn-state resistance
Threshold voltageOff-state conductanceOff-state conductanceThreshold voltageOff-state conductance
Gate trigger voltage, VgtThreshold voltageGate trigger voltage, Vgt
Gate turn-off voltage, Vgt_offGate turn-off voltage, Vgt_off
Holding currentHolding current

Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies

Parameters and Options
Switching device HV
Ideal Semiconductor SwitchGTOIGBTMOSFETThyristor
On-state resistance HVForward voltage HVForward voltage HVDrain-source on resistance HVForward voltage HV
Off-state conductance HVOn-state resistance HVOn-state resistance HVOff-state conductance HVOn-state resistance HV
Threshold voltage HVOff-state conductance HVOff-state conductance HVThreshold voltage HVOff-state conductance HV
Gate trigger voltage HV, Vgt_hvThreshold voltage HVGate trigger voltage HV, Vgt_hv
Gate turn-off voltage HV, Vgt_off_hvGate turn-off voltage HV, Vgt_off_hv
Holding current HVHolding current HV
Switching device LV
Ideal Semiconductor SwitchGTOIGBTMOSFETThyristor
On-state resistance LVForward voltage LVForward voltage LVDrain-source on resistance LVForward voltage LV
Off-state conductance LVOn-state resistance LVOn-state resistance LVOff-state conductance LVOn-state resistance LV
Threshold voltage LVOff-state conductance LVOff-state conductance LVThreshold voltage LVOff-state conductance LV
Gate trigger voltage LV, VgtThreshold voltage LVGate trigger voltage LV, Vgt
Gate turn-off voltage LV, Vgt_off_lvGate turn-off voltage LV, Vgt_off_lv
Holding current LVHolding current LV

Switching device type for the nonisolated converter model.

Dependencies

See the Nonisolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

For the different switching device types, the Forward voltage is taken as:

  • GTO — Minimum voltage required across the anode and cathode block ports for the gradient of the device I-V characteristic to be 1/Ron, where Ron is the value of On-state resistance

  • IGBT — Minimum voltage required across the collector and emitter block ports for the gradient of the diode i-v characteristic to be 1/Ron, where Ron is the value of On-state resistance

  • Thyristor — Minimum voltage required for the device to turn on

Dependencies

See the Nonisolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

For the different switching device types, the On-state resistance is taken as:

  • GTO — Rate of change of voltage versus current above the forward voltage

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — Anode-cathode resistance when the device is on

  • IGBT — Collector-emitter resistance when the device is on

  • Thyristor — Anode-cathode resistance when the device is on

Dependencies

See the Nonisolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Resistance between the drain and the source, which also depends on the gate-to-source voltage.

Dependencies

See the Nonisolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Conductance when the device is off. The value must be less than 1/R, where R is the value of On-state resistance.

For the different switching device types, the On-state resistance is taken as:

  • GTO — Anode-cathode conductance

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — Anode-cathode conductance

  • IGBT — Collector-emitter conductance

  • MOSFET — Drain-source conductance

  • Thyristor — Anode-cathode conductance

Dependencies

See the Nonisolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate voltage threshold. The device turns on when the gate voltage is above this value. For the different switching device types, the device voltage of interest is:

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — Gate-emitter voltage

  • IGBT — Gate-cathode voltage

  • MOSFET — Gate-source voltage

Dependencies

See the Nonisolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate-cathode voltage threshold. The device turns on when the gate-cathode voltage is above this value.

Dependencies

See the Nonisolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate-cathode voltage threshold. The device turns off when the gate-cathode voltage is below this value.

Dependencies

See the Nonisolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate current threshold. The device stays on when the current is above this value, even when the gate-cathode voltage falls below the gate trigger voltage.

Dependencies

See the Nonisolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Switching device type for the high-voltage side of the isolated converter model.

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

For the different switching device types, the Forward voltage HV is taken as:

  • GTO — Minimum voltage required across the anode and cathode block ports for the gradient of the device I-V characteristic to be 1/Ron, where Ron is the value of On-state resistance

  • IGBT — Minimum voltage required across the collector and emitter block ports for the gradient of the diode i-v characteristic to be 1/Ron, where Ron is the value of On-state resistance

  • Thyristor — Minimum voltage required for the device to turn on

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Resistance between the drain and the source, which also depends on the gate-to-source voltage.

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

For the different switching device types, the On-state resistance HV is taken as:

  • GTO — Rate of change of voltage versus current above the forward voltage

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — Anode-cathode resistance when the device is on

  • IGBT — Collector-emitter resistance when the device is on

  • Thyristor — Anode-cathode resistance when the device is on

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Conductance when the device is off. The value must be less than 1/R, where R is the value of On-state resistance HV.

For the different switching device types, the On-state resistance HV is taken as:

  • GTO — Anode-cathode conductance

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — Anode-cathode conductance

  • IGBT — Collector-emitter conductance

  • MOSFET — Drain-source conductance

  • Thyristor — Anode-cathode conductance

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate voltage threshold. The device turns on when the gate voltage is above this value. For the different switching device types, the device voltage of interest is:

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — Gate-emitter voltage

  • IGBT — Gate-cathode voltage

  • MOSFET — Gate-source voltage

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate-cathode voltage threshold. The device turns on when the gate-cathode voltage is above this value.

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate-cathode voltage threshold. The device turns off when the gate-cathode voltage is below this value.

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate current threshold. The device stays on when the current is above this value, even when the gate-cathode voltage falls below the gate trigger voltage.

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Switching device type for the low-voltage side of the isolated converter model.

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

For the different switching device types, the Forward voltage LV is taken as:

  • GTO — Minimum voltage required across the anode and cathode block ports for the gradient of the device I-V characteristic to be 1/Ron, where Ron is the value of On-state resistance

  • IGBT — Minimum voltage required across the collector and emitter block ports for the gradient of the diode i-v characteristic to be 1/Ron, where Ron is the value of On-state resistance

  • Thyristor — Minimum voltage required for the device to turn on

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Resistance between the drain and the source, which also depends on the gate-to-source voltage.

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

For the different switching device types, the On-state resistance LV is taken as:

  • GTO — Rate of change of voltage versus current above the forward voltage

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — Anode-cathode resistance when the device is on

  • IGBT — Collector-emitter resistance when the device is on

  • Thyristor — Anode-cathode resistance when the device is on

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Conductance when the device is off. The value must be less than 1/R, where R is the value of On-state resistance LV.

For the different switching device types, the On-state resistance LV is taken as:

  • GTO — Anode-cathode conductance

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — Anode-cathode conductance

  • IGBT — Collector-emitter conductance

  • MOSFET — Drain-source conductance

  • Thyristor — Anode-cathode conductance

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate voltage threshold. The device turns on when the gate voltage is above this value. For the different switching device types, the device voltage of interest is:

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — Gate-emitter voltage

  • IGBT — Gate-cathode voltage

  • MOSFET — Gate-source voltage

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate-cathode voltage threshold. The device turns on when the gate-cathode voltage is above this value.

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate-cathode voltage threshold. The device turns off when the gate-cathode voltage is below this value.

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate current threshold. The device stays on when the current is above this value, even when the gate-cathode voltage falls below the gate trigger voltage.

Dependencies

See the Isolated Converter Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Protection Diode

The visibility of Protection Diode parameters depends on how you configure the protection diode Model dynamics and Reverse recovery time parameterization parameters. To learn how to read this table, see Parameter Dependencies.

Protection Diode Parameter Dependencies

Parameters and Options
Model dynamics
Protection diode with no dynamicsProtection diode with charge dynamics
Forward voltageForward voltage
On resistanceOn resistance
Off conductanceOff conductance
Junction capacitance
Peak reverse current, iRM
Initial forward current when measuring iRM
Rate of change of current when measuring iRM
Reverse recovery time parameterization
Specify stretch factorSpecify reverse recovery time directlySpecify reverse recovery charge
Reverse recovery time stretch factorReverse recovery time, trrReverse recovery charge, Qrr

Diode type. The options are:

  • Diode with no dynamics — Select this option to prioritize simulation speed using the Diode block.

  • Diode with charge dynamics — Select this option to prioritize model fidelity in terms of reverse mode charge dynamics using the commutation diode model of the Diode block.

Dependencies

See the Protection Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Minimum voltage required across the positive and negative block ports for the gradient of the diode I-V characteristic to be 1/Ron, where Ron is the value of On resistance.

Rate of change of voltage versus current above the Forward voltage.

Conductance of the reverse-biased diode.

Diode junction capacitance.

Dependencies

See the Protection Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Peak reverse current measured by an external test circuit.

Dependencies

See the Protection Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Initial forward current when measuring peak reverse current. This value must be greater than zero.

Dependencies

See the Protection Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Rate of change of current when measuring peak reverse current.

Dependencies

See the Protection Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Model for parameterizing the recovery time. When you select Specify stretch factor or Specify reverse recovery charge, you can specify a value that the block uses to derive the reverse recovery time. For more information on these options, see How the Block Calculates TM and Tau.

Dependencies

See the Protection Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Value that the block uses to calculate Reverse recovery time, trr. Specifying the stretch factor is an easier way to parameterize the reverse recovery time than specifying the reverse recovery charge. The larger the value of the stretch factor, the longer it takes for the reverse recovery current to dissipate.

Dependencies

See the Protection Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Interval between the time when the current initially goes to zero (when the diode turns off) and the time when the current falls to less than 10 percent of the peak reverse current.

The value of the Reverse recovery time, trr parameter must be greater than the value of the Peak reverse current, iRM parameter divided by the value of the Rate of change of current when measuring iRM parameter.

Dependencies

See the Protection Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Value that the block uses to calculate Reverse recovery time, trr. Use this parameter if the data sheet for your diode device specifies a value for the reverse recovery charge instead of a value for the reverse recovery time.

The reverse recovery charge is the total charge that continues to dissipate when the diode turns off. The value must be less than i2RM2a,

where:

  • iRM is the value specified for Peak reverse current, iRM.

  • a is the value specified for Rate of change of current when measuring iRM.

Dependencies

See the Protection Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Transformer

The Transformer parameters are only visible when Block choice is set to Isolated converter.

Self-inductance of the first winding of the transformer.

Dependencies

This parameter is only visible when Block choice is set to Isolated converter.

Self-inductance of the second winding of the transformer.

Dependencies

This parameter is only visible when Block choice is set to Isolated converter.

Defines the mutual inductance of the transformer.

Dependencies

This parameter is only visible when Block choice is set to Isolated converter.

LC Parameters

Converter inductance. For the isolated converter model variant, the two inductors are identical.

Capacitance of the first DC terminal.

Capacitance of the second DC terminal.

Series resistance of capacitor C1.

Series resistance of capacitor C2.

Snubbers

The table summarizes the Snubbers parameter dependencies. To learn how to read the table, see Parameter Dependencies.

Snubbers Parameter Dependencies

Snubbers Parameter Dependencies
Block choice
Nonisolated ConverterIsolated Converter
SnubberSnubber HV
NoneRC SnubberNoneRC Snubber
Snubber resistanceSnubber resistance HV
Snubber capacitanceSnubber capacitance HV
Snubber LV
NoneRC Snubber
Snubber resistance LV
Snubber capacitance LV

Snubber for each switching device.

Dependencies

See the Snubbers Parameter Dependencies table.

Resistance of the snubbers.

Dependencies

See the Snubbers Parameter Dependencies table.

Capacitance of the snubbers.

Dependencies

See the Snubbers Parameter Dependencies table.

HV snubber for each switching device.

Dependencies

See the Snubbers Parameter Dependencies table.

Resistance of the high-voltage snubbers.

Dependencies

See the Snubbers Parameter Dependencies table.

Capacitance of the high-voltage snubbers.

Dependencies

See the Snubbers Parameter Dependencies table.

LV snubber for each switching device.

Dependencies

See the Snubbers Parameter Dependencies table.

Resistance of the low-voltage snubbers.

Dependencies

See the Snubbers Parameter Dependencies table.

Capacitance of the low-voltage snubbers.

Dependencies

See the Snubbers Parameter Dependencies table.

References

[1] Saleh, M., Y. Esa, Y. Mhandi, W. Brandauer, and A. Mohamed. Design and implementation of CCNY DC microgrid testbed. Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting. Portland, OR: 2016, pp 1-7.

[2] Kutkut, N. H., and G. Luckjiff. Current mode control of a full bridge DC-to-DC converter with a two inductor rectifier. Power Electronics Specialists Conference. Saint Louis, MO: 1997, pp 203-209.

[3] Nene, H. Digital control of a bi-directional DC-DC converter for automotive applications. Twenty-Eighth Annual IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition (APEC). Long Beach, CA: 2013, pp 1360-1365.

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