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CMOS XOR

Behavioral model of CMOS XOR gate

  • Library:
  • Simscape / Electrical / Integrated Circuits / Logic

  • CMOS XOR block

Description

The CMOS XOR block represents a CMOS XOR logic gate behaviorally:

  • The block output logic level is HIGH if the logic level of exactly one of the gate inputs is 1.

  • The block output logic level is LOW otherwise.

The block determines the logic levels of the gate inputs as follows:

  • If the gate voltage is greater than the threshold voltage, the block interprets the input as logic 1.

  • Otherwise, the block interprets the input as logic 0.

The threshold voltage is the voltage value at midpoint between the High level input voltage parameter value and the Low level input voltage parameter value.

Note

To improve simulation speed, the block does not model all the internal individual MOSFET devices that make up the gate. See Assumptions and Limitations for details.

The block models the gate as follows:

  • The gate inputs have infinite resistance and finite or zero capacitance.

  • The gate output offers a selection of two models: Linear and Quadratic. For more information, see Selecting the Output Model for Logic Blocks. Use the Output current-voltage relationship parameter to specify the output model.

  • You can specify propagation delay for both output models. For Linear output, the block sets the value of the gate output capacitor such that the resistor-capacitor time constant equals the Propagation delay parameter value. For Quadratic output, the gate input demand is lagged to approximate the Propagation delay parameter value.

The block initial conditions depend on the output model selected:

  • For Linear model, the high initial condition corresponds to the High level output voltage parameter value, V_OH, and the low initial condition corresponds to the Low level output voltage parameter value, V_OL.

  • For Quadratic model, the high initial condition is a value close to the Supply voltage parameter value, Vcc, and the low initial condition is close to 0.

The block output voltage depends on the output model selected:

  • For Linear model, output high is the High level output voltage parameter value, and output low is the Low level output voltage parameter value.

  • For Quadratic model, the output voltage for High and Low states is a function of the output current, as explained in Quadratic Model Output and Parameters. For zero load current, output high is Vcc (the Supply voltage parameter value), and output low is zero volts.

Voltage Plot

To access a voltage plot for each electrical port, in your model, right-click the block and, from the context menu, select Electrical > Basic Characteristics.

Assumptions and Limitations

The block does not model the internal individual MOSFET devices that make up the gate (except for the final MOSFET pair if you select the Quadratic option for the Output current-voltage relationship parameter). This limitation has the following implications:

  • The block does not accurately model the gate's response to input noise and inputs that are around the logic threshold voltage.

  • The block does not accurately model dynamic response.

Circuits that involve a feedback path around a set of logic gates may require a nonzero propagation delay to be set on one or more gates.

Ports

Conserving

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Electrical conserving port associated with the CMOS XOR input.

Electrical conserving port associated with the CMOS XOR input.

Electrical conserving port associated with the CMOS XOR output.

Parameters

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Inputs

Voltage value below which the block interprets the input voltage as logic LOW.

Voltage value above which the block interprets the input voltage as logic HIGH.

Fixed capacitance that approximates the input capacitance for a MOSFET gate. The MOSFET capacitance depends on the applied voltage. When you drive this block with another gate, the Average input capacitance produces a rise time similar to that of the MOSFET. You can usually find this capacitance value on a manufacturer datasheet. Setting this value to zero may result in faster simulation times.

Outputs

Select the output model:

  • Linear - This is the default value.

  • Quadratic

Voltage value at the output when the output logic level is LOW.

Dependencies

This parameter is visible only when you select Linear for the Output current-voltage relationship parameter.

Voltage value at the output when the output logic level is HIGH.

Dependencies

This parameter is visible only when you select Linear for the Output current-voltage relationship parameter.

Value of the series output resistor that is used to model the drop in output voltage resulting from the output current. You can derive this value from a datasheet by dividing the high-level output voltage by the maximum low-level output current.

Dependencies

This parameter is visible only when you select Linear for the Output current-voltage relationship parameter.

Supply voltage value applied to the gate in your circuit.

Dependencies

This parameter is visible only when you select Quadratic for the Output current-voltage relationship parameter.

The gate supply voltage for which mask data output resistances and currents are defined.

Dependencies

This parameter is visible only when you select Quadratic for the Output current-voltage relationship parameter.

A row vector [ R_OH1R_OH2 ] of two resistance values. The first value R_OH1 is the gradient of the output voltage-current relationship when the gate is logic HIGH and there is no output current. The second value R_OH2 is the gradient of the output voltage-current relationship when the gate is logic HIGH and the output current is I_OH.

Dependencies

This parameter is visible only when you select Quadratic for the Output current-voltage relationship parameter.

The resulting current when the gate is in the logic HIGH state, but the load forces the output voltage to zero.

Dependencies

This parameter is visible only when you select Quadratic for the Output current-voltage relationship parameter.

A row vector [ R_OL1R_OL2 ] of two resistance values. The first value R_OL1 is the gradient of the output voltage-current relationship when the gate is logic LOW and there is no output current. The second value R_OL2 is the gradient of the output voltage-current relationship when the gate is logic LOW and the output current is I_OL.

Dependencies

This parameter is visible only when you select Quadratic for the Output current-voltage relationship parameter.

The resulting current when the gate is in the logic LOW state, but the load forces the output voltage to the supply voltage Vcc.

Dependencies

This parameter is visible only when you select Quadratic for the Output current-voltage relationship parameter.

Time it takes for the output to swing from LOW to HIGH or HIGH to LOW after the input logic levels change.

The gradient of the voltage-current relationship for the protection diodes when forward biased.

Dependencies

This parameter is visible only when you select Quadratic for the Output current-voltage relationship parameter.

The voltage above which the protection diode is turned on.

Dependencies

This parameter is visible only when you select Quadratic for the Output current-voltage relationship parameter.

Initial Conditions

Specify whether the initial output state of the block is High or Low. This parameter is used for both linear and quadratic output states, provided that the Propagation delay parameter is greater than zero and the Solver Configuration block does not have the Start simulation from steady state option selected.

Extended Capabilities

C/C++ Code Generation
Generate C and C++ code using Simulink® Coder™.

Introduced in R2008b