I found this project over on MATLAB Examples. This shows how to use the MATLAB Support Package for Arduino Hardware and the I2C interface to communicate with I2C devices. This project uses TMP102, a two-wire serial output digital sensor, which can read temperature up to a resolution of 0.0625 degrees in Celsius. This project uses the MATLAB Support Package for Arduino Hardware which allows you to acquire inputs and send outputs on Arduino boards. Discuss what you can build with this here.