Adam Optimization Algorithm for Machine and Deep Learning
Updated 18 Jun 2022
#The Adam optimization algorithm is an extension to stochastic gradient descent that has recently seen broader adoption for deep learning applications in computer vision and natural language processing. Adam is different to classical stochastic gradient descent. Stochastic gradient descent maintains a single learning rate (termed alpha) for all weight updates and the learning rate does not change during training. A learning rate is maintained for each network weight (parameter) and separately adapted as learning unfolds. Adam realizes the benefits of both AdaGrad and RMSProp. Instead of adapting the parameter learning rates based on the average first moment (the mean) as in RMSProp, Adam also makes use of the average of the second moments of the gradients (the uncentered variance). Specifically, the algorithm calculates an exponential moving average of the gradient and the squared gradient, and the parameters beta1 and beta2 control the decay rates of these moving averages. The initial value of the moving averages and beta1 and beta2 values close to 1.0 (recommended) result in a bias of moment estimates towards zero. This bias is overcome by first calculating the biased estimates before then calculating bias-corrected estimates.
Seshu Kumar Damarla (2022). Adam Optimization Algorithm for Machine and Deep Learning (https://github.com/seshu-damarla/Gradient-Descent-with-Adam-for-MLP-Network/releases/tag/v1.1.0), GitHub. Retrieved .
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