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Linear Least Squares with Bound Constraints

Many situations give rise to sparse linear least-squares problems, often with bounds on the variables. You can use the 'trust-region-reflective' algorithm to solve sparse bound-constrained problems. The next problem requires that the variables be nonnegative. This problem comes from fitting a function approximation to a piecewise linear spline. Specifically, particles are scattered on the unit square. The function to be approximated is evaluated at these points, and a piecewise linear spline approximation is constructed under the condition that (linear) coefficients are not negative. There are 2000 equations to fit on 400 variables:

load particle   % Get C, d
lb = zeros(400,1);
options = optimoptions('lsqlin','Algorithm','trust-region-reflective');
[x,resnorm,residual,exitflag,output] = ...
lsqlin(C,d,[],[],[],[],lb,[],[],options);
Local minimum possible.

lsqlin stopped because the relative change in function value is less than the square root of the function tolerance and the rate of change in the function value is slow.

The default diagonal preconditioning works fairly well:

exitflag,resnorm,output

exitflag =
3

resnorm =
22.5794

output =
struct with fields:

iterations: 10
algorithm: 'trust-region-reflective'
firstorderopt: 2.7870e-05
cgiterations: 42
constrviolation: []
linearsolver: []
message: 'Local minimum possible.↵↵lsqlin stopped because the relative change in function value is less than the square root of the function tolerance and the rate of change in the function value is slow.'

For bound constrained problems, the first-order optimality is the infinity norm of v.*g, where v is defined as in Box Constraints, and g is the gradient.

You can improve (decrease) the first-order optimality measure by using a sparse QR factorization in each iteration. To do this, set SubproblemAlgorithm to 'factorization':

options = optimoptions(options,'SubproblemAlgorithm','factorization');
[x,resnorm,residual,exitflag,output] = ...
lsqlin(C,d,[],[],[],[],lb,[],[],options);
Optimal solution found.

The first-order optimality measure decreases:

exitflag,resnorm,output

exitflag =
1

resnorm =
22.5794

output =
struct with fields:
iterations: 12
algorithm: 'trust-region-reflective'
firstorderopt: 5.5907e-15
cgiterations: 0
constrviolation: []
linearsolver: []
message: 'Optimal solution found.'

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