# BLDC

Three-winding brushless DC motor with trapezoidal flux distribution

**Libraries:**

Simscape /
Electrical /
Electromechanical /
Permanent Magnet

## Description

The BLDC block models a brushless (BL) direct current (DC) motor with a three-phase wye-wound or delta-wound stator. Use this block to model BLDC motors and BLDC servomotors.

BLDC motors have a permanent magnet rotor and a wound stator. The flux distribution is trapezoidal, presenting an approximately constant back EMF profile to the drive electronics, greatly simplifying motor control. You can use these motors in consumer goods like washing machines, small-scale quadcopters, pumps, and fans, and also for industrial automation and robotics applications.

The BLDC block has four options for defining the permanent magnet flux distribution as a function of rotor angle. Two options allow for simple parameterization by assuming a perfect trapezoid for the back EMF. For simple parameterization, you specify either the flux linkage or the rotor-induced back EMF. The other two options give more accurate results using tabulated data that you specify. For more accurate results, you specify either the flux linkage partial derivative or the measured back EMF constant for a given rotor speed.

This figure shows the equivalent electrical circuit for a wye-wound stator.

You can model the BLDC motor in a delta-wound or open-end configuration by setting
**Winding type** to `Delta-wound`

or
`Open-end`

, respectively.

**Note**

Simscape™ Electrical™ includes several blocks that can model the same type of motor or actuator. You must choose a block that has sufficient modeling detail for the engineering design questions that you need to answer. However, do not use more detail than you need, because higher-fidelity models slow down simulation and are more complex to parameterize.

Blocks like the BLDC block model motors with fixed or parameter-dependent coefficients with a simple equivalent circuit. These models have an intermediate level of fidelity. Use this block to design controls or systems in actuation applications, such as robotics and mechatronics, and for efficiency predictions when saturation and harmonics only weakly impact losses. For more information about choosing the right block to model your motor at the right level of fidelity, see Choose Blocks to Model Motors or Actuators.

### Motor Construction

This figure shows the motor construction with a single pole-pair on the rotor.

For the axes convention in the preceding figure, the
*a*-phase and permanent magnet fluxes are aligned when rotor
angle *θ _{r}* is zero. The block supports a
second rotor-axis definition. For the second definition, the rotor angle is the
angle between the

*a*-phase magnetic axis and the rotor

*q*-axis.

### Trapezoidal Rate of Change of Flux

The rotor magnetic field due to the permanent magnets create a trapezoidal rate of change of flux with rotor angle. The figure shows this rate of change of flux.

Back EMF is the rate of change of flux, defined by

$\frac{d\Phi}{dt}=\frac{\partial \Phi}{\partial \theta}\frac{d\theta}{dt}=\frac{\partial \Phi}{\partial \theta}\omega ,$

where:

*Φ*is the permanent magnet flux linkage.*θ*is the rotor angle.*ω*is the mechanical rotational speed.

The height `h`

of the trapezoidal rate of change of flux profile
is derived from the permanent magnet peak flux.

Integrating $\frac{\partial \Phi}{\partial \theta}$ over the range 0 to π/2,

${\Phi}_{max}=\frac{h}{2}({\theta}_{F}+{\theta}_{W}),$

where:

*Φ*is the permanent magnet flux linkage._{max}*h*is the rate of change of flux profile height.*θ*is the rotor angle range over which the back EMF that the permanent magnet flux induces in the stator is constant._{F}*θ*is the rotor angle range over which back EMF increases or decreases linearly when the rotor moves at constant speed._{W}

Rearranging the preceding equation,

$h=2{\Phi}_{max}/({\theta}_{F}+{\theta}_{W}).$

### Electrical Defining Equations

Voltages across the stator windings are defined by

$$\left[\begin{array}{c}{v}_{a}\\ {v}_{b}\\ {v}_{c}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{R}_{s}& 0& 0\\ 0& {R}_{s}& 0\\ 0& 0& {R}_{s}\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{i}_{a}\\ {i}_{b}\\ {i}_{c}\end{array}\right]+\left[\begin{array}{c}\frac{d{\psi}_{a}}{dt}\\ \frac{d{\psi}_{b}}{dt}\\ \frac{d{\psi}_{c}}{dt}\end{array}\right],$$

where:

*v*,_{a}*v*, and_{b}*v*are the external voltages applied to the three motor electrical connections._{c}*R*is the equivalent resistance of each stator winding._{s}*i*,_{a}*i*, and_{b}*i*are the currents flowing in the stator windings._{c}$$\frac{d{\psi}_{a}}{dt},$$$$\frac{d{\psi}_{b}}{dt},$$ and $$\frac{d{\psi}_{c}}{dt}$$

are the rates of change of magnetic flux in each stator winding.

The permanent magnet and the three windings contribute to the total flux linking each winding. The total flux is defined by

$$\left[\begin{array}{c}{\psi}_{a}\\ {\psi}_{b}\\ {\psi}_{c}\end{array}\right]=\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{L}_{aa}& {L}_{ab}& {L}_{ac}\\ {L}_{ba}& {L}_{bb}& {L}_{bc}\\ {L}_{ca}& {L}_{cb}& {L}_{cc}\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}{i}_{a}\\ {i}_{b}\\ {i}_{c}\end{array}\right]+\left[\begin{array}{c}{\psi}_{am}\\ {\psi}_{bm}\\ {\psi}_{cm}\end{array}\right],$$

where:

*ψ*,_{a}*ψ*, and_{b}*ψ*are the total fluxes linking each stator winding._{c}*L*,_{aa}*L*, and_{bb}*L*are the self-inductances of the stator windings._{cc}*L*,_{ab}*L*,_{ac}*L*, etc. are the mutual inductances of the stator windings._{ba}*ψ*,_{am}*ψ*, and_{bm}*ψ*are the permanent magnet fluxes linking the stator windings._{cm}

The inductances in the stator windings are functions of rotor angle, defined by

${L}_{aa}={L}_{s}+{L}_{m}\text{cos}(2{\theta}_{r}),$

${L}_{bb}={L}_{s}+{L}_{m}\text{cos}(2\left({\theta}_{r}-2\pi /3\right)),$

${L}_{cc}={L}_{s}+{L}_{m}\text{cos}(2\left({\theta}_{r}+2\pi /3\right)),$

${L}_{ab}={L}_{ba}=-{M}_{s}-{L}_{m}\mathrm{cos}\left(2\left({\theta}_{r}+\pi /6\right)\right),$

${L}_{bc}={L}_{cb}=-{M}_{s}-{L}_{m}\mathrm{cos}\left(2\left({\theta}_{r}+\pi /6-2\pi /3\right)\right),$

and

${L}_{ca}={L}_{ac}=-{M}_{s}-{L}_{m}\mathrm{cos}\left(2\left({\theta}_{r}+\pi /6+2\pi /3\right)\right),$

where:

*L*is the stator self-inductance per phase — The average self-inductance of each of the stator windings._{s}*L*is the stator inductance fluctuation — The fluctuation in self-inductance and mutual inductance with changing rotor angle._{m}*M*is the stator mutual inductance — The average mutual inductance between the stator windings._{s}

The permanent magnet flux linking each stator winding follows the trapezoidal profile shown in the figure. The block implements the trapezoidal profile using lookup tables to calculate permanent magnet flux values.

### Simplified Equations

The defining voltage and torque equations for the block are

$\left[\begin{array}{c}{v}_{d}\\ {v}_{q}\\ {v}_{0}\end{array}\right]=P\left(\left[\begin{array}{c}{v}_{a}\\ {v}_{b}\\ {v}_{c}\end{array}\right]-N\omega \left[\begin{array}{c}\frac{\partial {\psi}_{am}}{\partial {\theta}_{r}}\\ \frac{\partial {\psi}_{bm}}{\partial {\theta}_{r}}\\ \frac{\partial {\psi}_{cm}}{\partial {\theta}_{r}}\end{array}\right]\right),$

${v}_{d}={R}_{s}{i}_{d}+{L}_{d}\frac{d{i}_{d}}{dt}-N\omega {i}_{q}{L}_{q}$

${v}_{q}={R}_{s}{i}_{q}+{L}_{q}\frac{d{i}_{q}}{dt}+N\omega {i}_{d}{L}_{d},$

${v}_{0}={R}_{s}{i}_{0}+{L}_{0}\frac{d{i}_{0}}{dt}$

and

$T=\frac{3}{2}N\left({i}_{q}{i}_{d}{L}_{d}-{i}_{d}{i}_{q}{L}_{q}\right)+\left[\begin{array}{ccc}{i}_{a}& {i}_{b}& {i}_{c}\end{array}\right]\left[\begin{array}{c}\frac{\partial {\psi}_{am}}{\partial {\theta}_{r}}\\ \frac{\partial {\psi}_{bm}}{\partial {\theta}_{r}}\\ \frac{\partial {\psi}_{cm}}{\partial {\theta}_{r}}\end{array}\right],$

where:

*v*,_{d}*v*, and_{q}*v*are the_{0}*d*-axis,*q*-axis, and zero-sequence voltages.*P*is Park’s Transformation, defined by$P=2/3\left[\begin{array}{ccc}\mathrm{cos}{\theta}_{e}& \mathrm{cos}\left({\theta}_{e}-2\pi /3\right)& \mathrm{cos}\left({\theta}_{e}+2\pi /3\right)\\ -\mathrm{sin}{\theta}_{e}& -\mathrm{sin}\left({\theta}_{e}-2\pi /3\right)& -\mathrm{sin}\left({\theta}_{e}+2\pi /3\right)\\ 0.5& 0.5& 0.5\end{array}\right]$

*N*is the number of rotor permanent magnet pole pairs.*ω*is the rotor mechanical rotational speed.$$\frac{\partial {\psi}_{am}}{\partial {\theta}_{r}},$$$$\frac{\partial {\psi}_{bm}}{\partial {\theta}_{r}},$$ and $$\frac{\partial {\psi}_{cm}}{\partial {\theta}_{r}}$$

are the partial derivatives of instantaneous permanent magnet flux linking each phase winding.

*i*,_{d}*i*, and_{q}*i*are the_{0}*d*-axis,*q*-axis, and zero-sequence currents, defined by$\left[\begin{array}{c}{i}_{d}\\ {i}_{q}\\ {i}_{0}\end{array}\right]=P\left[\begin{array}{c}{i}_{a}\\ {i}_{b}\\ {i}_{c}\end{array}\right]$

*L*=_{d}*L*+_{s}*M*+ 3/2_{s}*L*._{m}*L*is the stator_{d}*d*-axis inductance.*L*=_{q}*L*+_{s}*M*− 3/2_{s}*L*._{m}*L*is the stator_{q}*q*-axis inductance.*L*=_{0}*L*– 2_{s}*M*._{s}*L*is the stator zero-sequence inductance._{0}*T*is the rotor torque. Torque flows from the motor case (block physical port C) to the motor rotor (block physical port R).

### Calculating Iron Losses

Iron losses are divided into two terms, one representing the main magnetizing path, and the other representing the cross-tooth tip path that becomes active during field weakened operation. The iron losses model, which is based on the work of Mellor [3].

The term representing the main magnetizing path depends on the induced RMS stator voltage, $${V}_{{m}_{rms}}^{}$$:

$${P}_{OC}\left({V}_{{m}_{rms}}^{}\right)=\frac{{a}_{h}}{k}{V}_{{m}_{rms}}^{}+\frac{{a}_{j}}{{k}^{2}}{V}_{{m}_{rms}}^{2}+\frac{{a}_{ex}}{{k}^{1.5}}{V}_{{m}_{rms}}^{1.5}.$$

This is the dominant term during no-load operation. *k* is the
back EMF constant relating RMS volts per Hz. It is defined as $$k={V}_{{m}_{rms}}^{}/f$$, where *f* is the electrical frequency. The first
term on the right-hand side is the magnetic hysteresis loss, the second is the eddy
current loss and the third is the excess loss. The three coefficients appearing on
the numerators are derived from the values that you provide for the open-circuit
hysteresis, eddy, and excess losses.

The term representing the cross-tooth tip path becomes important when a demagnetizing field is set up and can be determined from a finite element analysis short-circuit test. It depends on the RMS EMF associated with the cross-tooth tip flux, $${V}_{{d}_{rms}}^{*}$$:

$${P}_{SC}\left({V}_{{d}_{rms}}^{*}\right)=\frac{{b}_{h}}{k}{V}_{{d}_{rms}}^{*}+\frac{{b}_{j}}{{k}^{2}}{V}_{{d}_{rms}}^{*2}+\frac{{b}_{ex}}{{k}^{1.5}}{V}_{{d}_{rms}}^{*1.5}.$$

The three numerator terms are derived from the values you provide for the short-circuit hysteresis, eddy, and excess losses.

### Predefined Parameterization

There are multiple available built-in parameterizations for the BLDC block.

This pre-parameterization data allows you to set up the block to represent
components by specific suppliers. The parameterizations of these brushless DC motors
match the manufacturer data sheets. To load a predefined parameterization,
double-click the BLDC block, click the **<click to
select>** hyperlink of the **Selected part** parameter
and, in the Block Parameterization Manager window, select the part you want to use
from the list of available components.

**Note**

The predefined parameterizations of Simscape components use available data sources for the parameter values. Engineering judgement and simplifying assumptions are used to fill in for missing data. As a result, expect deviations between simulated and actual physical behavior. To ensure accuracy, validate the simulated behavior against experimental data and refine component models as necessary.

For more information about pre-parameterization and for a list of the available components, see List of Pre-Parameterized Components.

### Model Thermal Effects

You can expose thermal ports to model the effects of losses that convert power to heat. To
expose the thermal ports, set the **Modeling option** parameter to either:

`No thermal port`

— The block contains expanded electrical conserving ports associated with the stator windings, but does not contain thermal ports.`Show thermal port`

— The block contains expanded electrical conserving ports associated with the stator windings and thermal conserving ports for each of the windings and for the rotor.

For more information about using thermal ports in actuator blocks, see Simulating Thermal Effects in Rotational and Translational Actuators.

### Variables

To set the priority and initial target values for the block variables before simulation,
use the **Initial Targets** section in the block dialog box or Property
Inspector. For more information, see Set Priority and Initial Target for Block Variables.

Nominal values provide a way to specify the expected magnitude of a variable in a model.
Using system scaling based on nominal values increases the simulation robustness. You can
specify nominal values using different sources, including the **Nominal
Values** section in the block dialog box or Property Inspector. For more
information, see System Scaling by Nominal Values.

## Examples

## Ports

### Conserving

## Parameters

## References

[1] Kundur, P. *Power
System Stability and Control.* New York, NY: McGraw Hill,
1993.

[2] Anderson, P. M.
*Analysis of Faulted Power Systems.* Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-IEEE
Press, 1995.

[3] Mellor, P.H., R. Wrobel, and
D. Holliday. “A computationally efficient iron loss model for brushless AC
machines that caters for rated flux and field weakened operation.”
*IEEE Electric Machines and Drives Conference*. May
2009.

## Extended Capabilities

## Version History

**Introduced in R2013b**

## See Also

### Simscape Blocks

- FEM-Parameterized PMSM | Motor & Drive (System Level) | Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor | Hybrid Excitation Synchronous Machine