Lidar Point Cloud Generator
Generate lidar point cloud data for driving scenario or RoadRunner Scenario
Since R2020b
Libraries:
Automated Driving Toolbox /
Driving Scenario and Sensor Modeling
Description
The Lidar Point Cloud Generator block generates a point cloud from lidar measurements taken by a lidar sensor mounted on an ego vehicle.
The block derives the point cloud from simulated roads and actor poses in a driving scenario and generates the point cloud at intervals equal to the sensor update interval. By default, detections are referenced to the coordinate system of the ego vehicle. The block can simulate added noise at a specified range accuracy by using a statistical model. The block also provides parameters to exclude the ego vehicle and roads from the generated point cloud.
You can use the block with vehicle actors in Driving Scenario and RoadRunner Scenario simulations. The block does not require any inputs when used with actors in a RoadRunner Scenario simulation. For more information, see Add Sensors to RoadRunner Scenario Using Simulink example.
The lidar generates point cloud data based on the mesh representations of the roads and actors in the scenario. A mesh is a 3D geometry of an object that is composed of faces and vertices.
When building scenarios and sensor models using the Driving Scenario Designer app, the lidar sensors exported to Simulink^{®} are output as Lidar Point Cloud Generator blocks.
Examples
Test OpenLoop ADAS Algorithm Using Driving Scenario
Test openloop ADAS algorithms in Simulink by using driving scenarios saved from the Driving Scenario Designer app.
Add Sensors to RoadRunner Scenario Using Simulink
Simulate a RoadRunner Scenario with sensor models defined in Simulink and visualize object and lane detections.
Limitations
C/C++ code generation is not supported.
For Each subsystems are not supported.
Rapid acceleration mode is not supported.
Use of the Detection Concatenation block with this block is not supported. You cannot concatenate point cloud data with detections from other sensors.
If a model does not contain a Scenario Reader block, then this block does not include roads in the generated point cloud.
Point cloud data is not generated for lane markings.
Ports
Input
Actors — Scenario actor poses
Simulink bus containing MATLAB^{®} structure
Scenario actor poses in ego vehicle coordinates, specified as a Simulink bus containing a MATLAB structure.
The structure must contain these fields.
Field  Description  Type 

NumActors  Number of actors  Nonnegative integer 
Time  Current simulation time  Realvalued scalar 
Actors  Actor poses  NumActors length array of actor pose structures 
Each actor pose structure in Actors
must have these
fields.
Field  Description 

ActorID  Scenariodefined actor identifier, specified as a positive integer. 
In R2024b:
 Frontaxle position of the vehicle, specified as a threeelement row vector in the form [x y z]. Units are in meters. Note If the driving scenario does not contain a
frontaxle trajectory for at least one vehicle,
then the

Position  Position of actor, specified as a realvalued vector of the form [x y z]. Units are in meters. 
Velocity  Velocity (v) of actor in the x y, and zdirections, specified as a realvalued vector of the form [v_{x} v_{y} v_{z}]. Units are in meters per second. 
Roll  Roll angle of actor, specified as a realvalued scalar. Units are in degrees. 
Pitch  Pitch angle of actor, specified as a realvalued scalar. Units are in degrees. 
Yaw  Yaw angle of actor, specified as a realvalued scalar. Units are in degrees. 
AngularVelocity  Angular velocity (ω) of actor in the x, y, and zdirections, specified as a realvalued vector of the form [ω_{x} ω_{y} ω_{z}]. Units are in degrees per second. 
Dependencies
The block must be in a model that simulates a driving scenario using the Scenario Reader block.
Ego Vehicle — Ego vehicle pose
Simulink bus containing MATLAB structure
Ego vehicle pose, specified as a Simulink bus containing a MATLAB structure.
The structure must have these fields.
Field  Description 

ActorID  Scenariodefined actor identifier, specified as a positive integer. 
In R2024b:
 Frontaxle position of the vehicle, specified as a threeelement row vector in the form [x y z]. Units are in meters. Note If the driving scenario does not contain a
frontaxle trajectory for at least one vehicle,
then the

Position  Position of actor, specified as a realvalued vector of the form [x y z]. Units are in meters. 
Velocity  Velocity (v) of actor in the x y, and zdirections, specified as a realvalued vector of the form [v_{x} v_{y} v_{z}]. Units are in meters per second. 
Roll  Roll angle of actor, specified as a realvalued scalar. Units are in degrees. 
Pitch  Pitch angle of actor, specified as a realvalued scalar. Units are in degrees. 
Yaw  Yaw angle of actor, specified as a realvalued scalar. Units are in degrees. 
AngularVelocity  Angular velocity (ω) of actor in the x, y, and zdirections, specified as a realvalued vector of the form [ω_{x} ω_{y} ω_{z}]. Units are in degrees per second. 
You can output the ego vehicle pose from a Scenario Reader block. In the Scenario Reader block used in your model, select the Output ego vehicle pose parameter.
Dependencies
The block must be in a model that simulates a driving scenario using the Scenario Reader block.
Output
Point Cloud — Point cloud data
mbynby3 array of positive realvalued
[x, y, z] points
Point cloud data, returned as an mbynby 3 array of positive realvalued [x, y, z] points. m is the number of elevation (vertical) channels in the point cloud. n is the number of azimuthal (horizontal) channels in the point cloud. m and n define the number of points in the point cloud, as shown in this equation:
$$m\times n=\frac{{V}_{FOV}}{{V}_{RES}}\times \frac{{H}_{FOV}}{{H}_{RES}}$$
V_{FOV} is the vertical field of view of the lidar, in degrees, as specified by the Elevation limits of lidar (deg) parameter.
V_{RES} is the vertical angular resolution of the lidar, in degrees, as specified by the Elevation resolution of lidar (deg) parameter.
H_{FOV} is the horizontal field of view of the lidar, in degrees, as specified by the Azimuthal limits of lidar (deg) parameter.
H_{RES} is the horizontal angular resolution of the lidar, in degrees, as specified by the Azimuthal resolution of lidar (deg) parameter.
Each mbyn entry in the array specifies the
x, y, and zcoordinates
of a detected point in the ego vehicle coordinate system. If the lidar does not detect
a point at a given coordinate, then x, y, and
z are returned as NaN
.
By default, the Lidar Point Cloud Generator block includes road data in the generated point cloud. The block obtains the road data in world coordinates from a Scenario Reader block that is in the same model as the Lidar Point Cloud Generator block. The Lidar Point Cloud Generator block computes the road mesh in ego vehicle coordinates based on the road data and the ego vehicle pose at the Ego Vehicle input port. The Maximum detection range (m) parameter of the Lidar Point Cloud Generator block determines the extent of the road mesh. To exclude road data from the point cloud, clear the Include roads in generated point cloud parameter.
Parameters
Parameters
Sensor IdentificationUnique identifier of sensor — Unique sensor identifier
1
(default)  positive integer
Unique sensor identifier, specified as a positive integer. The sensor identifier distinguishes detections that come from different sensors in a multisensor system. If a model contains multiple sensor blocks that have the same sensor identifier, the Bird'sEye Scope displays an error.
Required interval between sensor updates (s) — Required time interval between sensor updates
0.1
(default)  positive scalar
Required time interval between sensor updates, specified as a positive scalar. The value of this parameter must be an integer multiple of the Actors input port data interval. Updates requested from the sensor between update intervals contain no detections. Units are in seconds.
Sensor's (x,y) position (m) — Location of center of lidar sensor
[1.5 0]
(default)  realvalued 1by2 vector
Location of the center of the lidar sensor, specified as a realvalued 1by2 vector. The Sensor's (x,y) position (m) and Sensor's height (m) parameters define the coordinates of the lidar sensor with respect to the ego vehicle coordinate system. The default value corresponds to a lidar sensor mounted on a sedan, at the center of the roof's front edge. Units are in meters.
Sensor's height (m) — Height of lidar sensor
1.6
(default)  positive scalar
Height of the lidar sensor above the ground plane, specified as a positive scalar. The Sensor's (x,y) position (m) and Sensor's height (m) parameters define the coordinates of the lidar sensor with respect to the ego vehicle coordinate system. The default value corresponds to a lidar sensor mounted on a sedan, at the center of the roof front edge. Units are in meters.
Yaw angle of sensor mounted on ego vehicle (deg) — Yaw angle of lidar sensor
0
(default)  realvalued scalar
Yaw angle of the lidar sensor, specified as a realvalued scalar. The yaw angle is the angle between the center line of the ego vehicle and the downrange axis of the lidar sensor. A positive yaw angle corresponds to a clockwise rotation when you look in the positive direction of the zaxis of the ego vehicle coordinate system. Units are in degrees.
Pitch angle of sensor mounted on ego vehicle (deg) — Pitch angle of lidar sensor
0
(default)  realvalued scalar
Pitch angle of the lidar sensor, specified as a realvalued scalar. The pitch angle is the angle between the downrange axis of the lidar sensor and the xyplane of the ego vehicle coordinate system. A positive pitch angle corresponds to a clockwise rotation when you look in the positive direction of the yaxis of the ego vehicle coordinate system. Units are in degrees.
Roll angle of sensor mounted on ego vehicle (deg) — Roll angle of lidar sensor
0
(default)  realvalued scalar
Roll angle of the lidar sensor, specified as a realvalued scalar. The roll angle is the angle of rotation of the downrange axis of the lidar sensor around the xaxis of the ego vehicle coordinate system. A positive roll angle corresponds to a clockwise rotation when you look in the positive direction of the xaxis of the ego vehicle coordinate system. Units are in degrees.
Coordinate system used to report point cloud — Coordinate system of reported detections
Ego Cartesian
(default)  Sensor Cartesian
Coordinate system of reported detections, specified as one of these values:
Ego Cartesian
— Detections are reported in the ego vehicle Cartesian coordinate system.Sensor Cartesian
— Detections are reported in the sensor Cartesian coordinate system.
Include ego vehicle in generated point cloud — Include ego vehicle in point cloud
on
(default)  off
Select this parameter to include the ego vehicle in the generated point cloud.
ActorID of ego vehicle — ActorID
value of ego vehicle
1
(default)  positive integer
ActorID
value of the ego vehicle, specified as a positive
integer. ActorID
is the unique identifier for an actor. This
parameter must be a valid ActorID
from the input Actor
bus.
Dependencies
To enable this parameter, select the Include ego vehicle in generated point cloud parameter.
Include roads in generated point cloud — Include roads in point cloud
on
(default)  off
Select this parameter to include the roads in the generated point cloud.
Source of actor profiles — Source of actor profiles
From Scenario Reader block
(default)  From workspace
Source of actor profiles, which are the physical and radar characteristics of all actors in the driving scenario, specified as one of these options:
From Scenario Reader block
— The block obtains the actor profiles from the scenario specified by the Scenario Reader block.From workspace
— The block obtains the actor profiles from the MATLAB or model workspace variable specified by the MATLAB or model workspace variable name parameter.
MATLAB or model workspace variable name — Variable name of actor profiles
actor_profiles
(default)  valid variable name
Variable name of actor profiles, specified as the name of a MATLAB or model workspace variable containing actor profiles.
Actor profiles are the physical and radar characteristics of all actors in a driving scenario and are specified as a structure or structure array.
If the actor profiles variable contains a single structure, then all actors specified in the input Actors bus use this profile.
If the actor profiles variable is a structure array, then each actor specified in the input Actors bus must have a unique actor profile.
To generate an array of structures for your driving scenario, use the actorProfiles
function. The table shows the valid structure fields. If
you do not specify a field, the fields are set to their default values.
Field  Description 

ActorID  Scenariodefined actor identifier, specified as a positive integer. 
ClassID  Classification identifier, specified as a nonnegative integer. 0
represents an object of an unknown or unassigned class. 
Length  Length of actor, specified as a positive realvalued scalar. Units are in meters. 
Width  Width of actor, specified as a positive realvalued scalar. Units are in meters. 
Height  Height of actor, specified as a positive realvalued scalar. Units are in meters. 
OriginOffset  Offset of actor's rotational center from its geometric center, specified as a realvalued vector of the form [x, y, z]. The rotational center, or origin, is located at the bottom center of the actor. For vehicles, the rotational center is the point on the ground beneath the center of the rear axle. Units are in meters. 
MeshVertices  Mesh vertices of actor, specified as an nby3 realvalued matrix of vertices. Each row in the matrix defines a point in 3D space. 
MeshFaces  Mesh faces of actor, specified as an
mby3 matrix of integers. Each row of
MeshFaces represents a triangle defined by the vertex
IDs, which are the row numbers of vertices. 
RCSPattern  Radar crosssection (RCS) pattern of actor, specified as a
numel(RCSElevationAngles) bynumel(RCSAzimuthAngles)
realvalued matrix. Units are in decibels per square meter. 
RCSAzimuthAngles  Azimuth angles corresponding to rows of RCSPattern , specified as a vector
of values in the range [–180, 180]. Units are in degrees. 
RCSElevationAngles  Elevation angles corresponding to rows of RCSPattern , specified as a
vector of values in the range [–90, 90]. Units are in degrees. 
For complete definitions of the structure fields, see the actor
and vehicle
functions.
Dependencies
To enable this parameter, set the Source of actor profiles
parameter to From workspace
.
Measurements
SettingsMaximum detection range (m) — Maximum detection range
120
(default)  positive scalar
Maximum detection range of the lidar sensor, specified as a positive scalar. The sensor cannot detect actors beyond this range. This parameter also determines the extent of the road mesh. Units are in meters.
Range accuracy (m) — Accuracy of range measurements
0.002
(default)  positive scalar
Accuracy of range measurements, specified as a positive scalar. Units are in meters.
Azimuthal resolution of lidar (deg) — Azimuthal resolution of lidar sensor
0.16
(default)  positive scalar
Azimuthal resolution of the lidar sensor, specified as a positive scalar. The azimuthal resolution defines the minimum separation in azimuth angle at which the lidar can distinguish between two targets. Units are in degrees.
Elevation resolution of lidar (deg) — Elevation resolution of lidar sensor
1.25
(default)  positive scalar
Elevation resolution of the lidar sensor, specified as a positive scalar. The elevation resolution defines the minimum separation in elevation angle at which the lidar can distinguish between two targets. Units are in degrees.
Azimuthal limits of lidar (deg) — Azimuthal limits of lidar sensor
[180 180]
(default)  1by2 realvalued vector of form [min,
max]
Azimuthal limits of the lidar sensor, specified as a 1by2 realvalued vector of the form [min, max]. Units are in degrees.
Elevation limits of lidar (deg) — Elevation limits of lidar sensor
[20 20]
(default)  1by2 realvalued vector of form [min,
max]
Elevation limits of the lidar sensor, specified as a 1by2 realvalued vector of the form [min, max]. Units are in degrees.
Add noise to measurements — Add noise to measurements
on
(default)  off
Select this parameter to add noise to lidar sensor measurements. When you clear this parameter, the measurements have no noise.
Version History
Introduced in R2020bR2024a: Usage with RoadRunner Scenario simulation does not require registering the sensor model using addSensors
function
Starting in R2024a, Simulink automatically instantiates a SensorSimulation
object and adds sensors defined in the model to the RoadRunner scenario. Hence, registering Lidar Point Cloud Generator block manually using the addSensors
function is not required. For more information on the new workflow, see the Add Sensors to RoadRunner Scenario Using Simulink example.
In releases prior to R2024a, you must manually register the block as a sensor model using the addSensors
function. For more information, see Adding sensors manually using addSensors
function is not required for Simulink models.
See Also
Apps
Blocks
Objects
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