kfoldLoss
Classification loss for cross-validated kernel classification model
Description
returns the classification loss
obtained by the cross-validated, binary kernel model (loss
= kfoldLoss(CVMdl
)ClassificationPartitionedKernel
) CVMdl
. For every fold,
kfoldLoss
computes the classification loss for validation-fold
observations using a model trained on training-fold observations.
By default, kfoldLoss
returns the classification error.
returns the classification loss with additional options specified by one or more name-value
pair arguments. For example, specify the classification loss function, number of folds, or
aggregation level.loss
= kfoldLoss(CVMdl
,Name,Value
)
Examples
Estimate k-Fold Cross-Validation Classification Error
Load the ionosphere
data set. This data set has 34 predictors and 351 binary responses for radar returns, which are labeled either bad ('b'
) or good ('g'
).
load ionosphere
Cross-validate a binary kernel classification model using the data.
CVMdl = fitckernel(X,Y,'Crossval','on')
CVMdl = ClassificationPartitionedKernel CrossValidatedModel: 'Kernel' ResponseName: 'Y' NumObservations: 351 KFold: 10 Partition: [1x1 cvpartition] ClassNames: {'b' 'g'} ScoreTransform: 'none'
CVMdl
is a ClassificationPartitionedKernel
model. By default, the software implements 10-fold cross-validation. To specify a different number of folds, use the 'KFold'
name-value pair argument instead of 'Crossval'
.
Estimate the cross-validated classification loss. By default, the software computes the classification error.
loss = kfoldLoss(CVMdl)
loss = 0.0940
Alternatively, you can obtain the per-fold classification errors by specifying the name-value pair 'Mode','individual'
in kfoldLoss
.
Specify Custom Classification Loss
Load the ionosphere
data set. This data set has 34 predictors and 351 binary responses for radar returns, which are labeled either bad ('b'
) or good ('g'
).
load ionosphere
Cross-validate a binary kernel classification model using the data.
CVMdl = fitckernel(X,Y,'Crossval','on')
CVMdl = ClassificationPartitionedKernel CrossValidatedModel: 'Kernel' ResponseName: 'Y' NumObservations: 351 KFold: 10 Partition: [1x1 cvpartition] ClassNames: {'b' 'g'} ScoreTransform: 'none'
CVMdl
is a ClassificationPartitionedKernel
model. By default, the software implements 10-fold cross-validation. To specify a different number of folds, use the 'KFold'
name-value pair argument instead of 'Crossval'
.
Create an anonymous function that measures linear loss, that is,
$$L=\frac{\sum _{j}-{w}_{j}{y}_{j}{f}_{j}}{\sum _{j}{w}_{j}}.$$
$${w}_{j}$$ is the weight for observation j, $${y}_{j}$$ is the response j (–1 for the negative class and 1 otherwise), and $${f}_{j}$$ is the raw classification score of observation j.
linearloss = @(C,S,W,Cost)sum(-W.*sum(S.*C,2))/sum(W);
Custom loss functions must be written in a particular form. For rules on writing a custom loss function, see the 'LossFun'
name-value pair argument.
Estimate the cross-validated classification loss using the linear loss function.
loss = kfoldLoss(CVMdl,'LossFun',linearloss)
loss = -0.7792
Input Arguments
CVMdl
— Cross-validated, binary kernel classification model
ClassificationPartitionedKernel
model object
Cross-validated, binary kernel classification model, specified as a ClassificationPartitionedKernel
model object. You can create a
ClassificationPartitionedKernel
model by using fitckernel
and specifying any one of the cross-validation name-value pair arguments.
To obtain estimates, kfoldLoss
applies the same data used to
cross-validate the kernel classification model (X
and
Y
).
Name-Value Arguments
Specify optional pairs of arguments as
Name1=Value1,...,NameN=ValueN
, where Name
is
the argument name and Value
is the corresponding value.
Name-value arguments must appear after other arguments, but the order of the
pairs does not matter.
Before R2021a, use commas to separate each name and value, and enclose
Name
in quotes.
Example: kfoldLoss(CVMdl,'Folds',[1 3 5])
specifies to use only the
first, third, and fifth folds to calculate the classification loss.
Folds
— Fold indices for prediction
1:CVMdl.KFold
(default) | numeric vector of positive integers
Fold indices for prediction, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of
'Folds'
and a numeric vector of positive integers. The elements
of Folds
must be within the range from 1
to
CVMdl.KFold
.
The software uses only the folds specified in Folds
for
prediction.
Example: 'Folds',[1 4 10]
Data Types: single
| double
LossFun
— Loss function
'classiferror'
(default) | 'binodeviance'
| 'classifcost'
| 'exponential'
| 'hinge'
| 'logit'
| 'mincost'
| 'quadratic'
| function handle
Loss function, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of
'LossFun'
and a built-in loss function name or a function handle.
This table lists the available loss functions. Specify one using its corresponding value.
Value Description "binodeviance"
Binomial deviance "classifcost"
Observed misclassification cost "classiferror"
Misclassified rate in decimal "exponential"
Exponential loss "hinge"
Hinge loss "logit"
Logistic loss "mincost"
Minimal expected misclassification cost (for classification scores that are posterior probabilities) "quadratic"
Quadratic loss 'mincost'
is appropriate for classification scores that are posterior probabilities. For kernel classification models, logistic regression learners return posterior probabilities as classification scores by default, but SVM learners do not (seekfoldPredict
).Specify your own function by using function handle notation.
Assume that
n
is the number of observations inX
, andK
is the number of distinct classes (numel(CVMdl.ClassNames)
, whereCVMdl
is the input model). Your function must have this signature:lossvalue =
lossfun
(C,S,W,Cost)The output argument
lossvalue
is a scalar.You specify the function name (
lossfun
).C
is ann
-by-K
logical matrix with rows indicating the class to which the corresponding observation belongs. The column order corresponds to the class order inCVMdl.ClassNames
.Construct
C
by settingC(p,q) = 1
, if observationp
is in classq
, for each row. Set all other elements of rowp
to0
.S
is ann
-by-K
numeric matrix of classification scores. The column order corresponds to the class order inCVMdl.ClassNames
.S
is a matrix of classification scores, similar to the output ofkfoldPredict
.W
is ann
-by-1 numeric vector of observation weights. If you passW
, the software normalizes the weights to sum to1
.Cost
is aK
-by-K
numeric matrix of misclassification costs. For example,Cost = ones(K) – eye(K)
specifies a cost of0
for correct classification, and1
for misclassification.
Example: 'LossFun',@
lossfun
Data Types: char
| string
| function_handle
Mode
— Aggregation level for output
'average'
(default) | 'individual'
Aggregation level for the output, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of
'Mode'
and 'average'
or
'individual'
.
This table describes the values.
Value | Description |
---|---|
'average' | The output is a scalar average over all folds. |
'individual' | The output is a vector of length k containing one value per fold, where k is the number of folds. |
Example: 'Mode','individual'
Output Arguments
loss
— Classification loss
numeric scalar | numeric column vector
Classification loss, returned as a numeric scalar or numeric column vector.
If Mode
is 'average'
, then
loss
is the average classification loss over all folds.
Otherwise, loss
is a k-by-1 numeric column
vector containing the classification loss for each fold, where k is
the number of folds.
More About
Classification Loss
Classification loss functions measure the predictive inaccuracy of classification models. When you compare the same type of loss among many models, a lower loss indicates a better predictive model.
Consider the following scenario.
L is the weighted average classification loss.
n is the sample size.
y_{j} is the observed class label. The software codes it as –1 or 1, indicating the negative or positive class (or the first or second class in the
ClassNames
property), respectively.f(X_{j}) is the positive-class classification score for observation (row) j of the predictor data X.
m_{j} = y_{j}f(X_{j}) is the classification score for classifying observation j into the class corresponding to y_{j}. Positive values of m_{j} indicate correct classification and do not contribute much to the average loss. Negative values of m_{j} indicate incorrect classification and contribute significantly to the average loss.
The weight for observation j is w_{j}. The software normalizes the observation weights so that they sum to the corresponding prior class probability stored in the
Prior
property. Therefore,$$\sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}}=1.$$
Given this scenario, the following table describes the supported loss functions that you can specify by using the LossFun
name-value argument.
Loss Function | Value of LossFun | Equation |
---|---|---|
Binomial deviance | "binodeviance" | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}\mathrm{log}\left\{1+\mathrm{exp}\left[-2{m}_{j}\right]\right\}}.$$ |
Observed misclassification cost | "classifcost" | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}}{c}_{{y}_{j}{\widehat{y}}_{j}},$$ where $${\widehat{y}}_{j}$$ is the class label corresponding to the class with the maximal score, and $${c}_{{y}_{j}{\widehat{y}}_{j}}$$ is the user-specified cost of classifying an observation into class $${\widehat{y}}_{j}$$ when its true class is y_{j}. |
Misclassified rate in decimal | "classiferror" | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}}I\left\{{\widehat{y}}_{j}\ne {y}_{j}\right\},$$ where I{·} is the indicator function. |
Cross-entropy loss | "crossentropy" |
The weighted cross-entropy loss is $$L=-{\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}\frac{{\tilde{w}}_{j}\mathrm{log}({m}_{j})}{Kn}},$$ where the weights $${\tilde{w}}_{j}$$ are normalized to sum to n instead of 1. |
Exponential loss | "exponential" | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}\mathrm{exp}\left(-{m}_{j}\right)}.$$ |
Hinge loss | "hinge" | $$L={\displaystyle \sum}_{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}\mathrm{max}\left\{0,1-{m}_{j}\right\}.$$ |
Logit loss | "logit" | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}\mathrm{log}\left(1+\mathrm{exp}\left(-{m}_{j}\right)\right)}.$$ |
Minimal expected misclassification cost | "mincost" |
The software computes the weighted minimal expected classification cost using this procedure for observations j = 1,...,n.
The weighted average of the minimal expected misclassification cost loss is $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}{c}_{j}}.$$ |
Quadratic loss | "quadratic" | $$L={\displaystyle \sum _{j=1}^{n}{w}_{j}{\left(1-{m}_{j}\right)}^{2}}.$$ |
If you use the default cost matrix (whose element value is 0 for correct classification
and 1 for incorrect classification), then the loss values for
"classifcost"
, "classiferror"
, and
"mincost"
are identical. For a model with a nondefault cost matrix,
the "classifcost"
loss is equivalent to the "mincost"
loss most of the time. These losses can be different if prediction into the class with
maximal posterior probability is different from prediction into the class with minimal
expected cost. Note that "mincost"
is appropriate only if classification
scores are posterior probabilities.
This figure compares the loss functions (except "classifcost"
,
"crossentropy"
, and "mincost"
) over the score
m for one observation. Some functions are normalized to pass through
the point (0,1).
Version History
Introduced in R2018bR2023b: Observations with missing predictor values are used in resubstitution and cross-validation computations
Starting in R2023b, the following classification model object functions use observations with missing predictor values as part of resubstitution ("resub") and cross-validation ("kfold") computations for classification edges, losses, margins, and predictions.
In previous releases, the software omitted observations with missing predictor values from the resubstitution and cross-validation computations.
R2022a: kfoldLoss
returns a different value for a model with a nondefault cost matrix
If you specify a nondefault cost matrix when you train the input model object, the kfoldLoss
function returns a different value compared to previous releases.
The kfoldLoss
function uses the
observation weights stored in the W
property. Also, the function uses the
cost matrix stored in the Cost
property if you specify the
LossFun
name-value argument as "classifcost"
or
"mincost"
. The way the function uses the W
and
Cost
property values has not changed. However, the property values stored in the input model object have changed for a
model with a nondefault cost matrix, so the function might return a different value.
For details about the property value change, see Cost property stores the user-specified cost matrix.
If you want the software to handle the cost matrix, prior
probabilities, and observation weights in the same way as in previous releases, adjust the prior
probabilities and observation weights for the nondefault cost matrix, as described in Adjust Prior Probabilities and Observation Weights for Misclassification Cost Matrix. Then, when you train a
classification model, specify the adjusted prior probabilities and observation weights by using
the Prior
and Weights
name-value arguments, respectively,
and use the default cost matrix.
See Also
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