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LTE CRC Encoder

Generate checksum and append to input sample stream

  • Library:
  • Wireless HDL Toolbox / Error Detection and Correction

  • LTE CRC Encoder block

Description

The LTE CRC Encoder block calculates and appends a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) checksum for each frame of streaming data samples. You can select from the polynomials specified by LTE standard TS 36.212 [1]. The block provides a hardware-optimized architecture and interface.

This block uses a streaming sample interface with a bus for related control signals. This interface enables the block to operate independently of frame size, and to connect easily with other Wireless HDL Toolbox™ blocks. The block accepts and returns a value representing a single sample, and a bus containing three control signals. These signals indicate the validity of each sample and the boundaries of the frame. To convert a matrix into a sample stream and these control signals, use the Frame To Samples block or the whdlFramesToSamples function. For a full description of the interface, see Streaming Sample Interface.

You must not apply another frame before the previous frame has completed. The hardware-friendly algorithm adds (CRCLength + 3)/InputSize cycles of latency. To account for the additional cycles of the appended checksum samples, and the latency, you must apply a minimum spacing of (2*CRCLength + 3)/InputSize between input frames. Alternatively, you can use the output signal ctrl.end to determine when the block is ready for new input. If you apply the next frame too early, the ctrl.start signal resets the checksum calculation and truncates the previous frame.

This waveform shows a 40-sample frame, input two samples at a time to a CRC16 encoder. The gap between the input frames is therefore 8 cycles. Due to the insertion of the checksum, the output ctrl.valid signal stays continuously high with no gaps between frames. The input and output ctrl buses are expanded to show the control signals. start and end show the frame boundaries, and valid qualifies the data samples.

Ports

Input

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Input sample, specified as a binary scalar, unsigned integer scalar, or binary vector. The vector size, InputSize, must be less than or equal to the length of the polynomial. The CRC length also must be divisible by the vector size. For example, for polynomial type CRC24A, the valid vector sizes are 24, 12, 8, 6, 4, 3, 2, and 1. An integer input is interpreted as a binary word. For example, vector input [0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1] is equivalent to uint8 input 19.

double and single are supported for simulation but not for HDL code generation.

Data Types: single | double | Boolean | ufix1 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | ufixN

Control signals accompanying the sample stream, specified as a samplecontrol bus. The bus includes the start, end, and valid control signals, which indicate the boundaries of the frame and the validity of the samples.

  • start — Indicates the start of the input frame

  • end — Indicates the end of the input frame

  • valid — Indicates that the data on the input data port is valid

For more detail, see Sample Control Bus.

Data Types: bus

Output

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Output sample, returned as a binary scalar, integer scalar, or binary vector of the same data type and size as the input sample. The block appends the calculated and masked checksum at the end of each frame.

double and single binary values are supported for simulation but not for HDL code generation.

Data Types: single | double | Boolean | ufix1 | uint8 | uint16 | uint32 | ufixN

Control signals accompanying the sample stream, returned as a samplecontrol bus. The bus includes the start, end, and valid control signals, which indicate the boundaries of the frame and the validity of the samples.

  • start — Indicates the start of the output frame

  • end — Indicates the end of the output frame

  • valid — Indicates that the data on the output data port is valid

For more detail, see Sample Control Bus.

Data Types: bus

Parameters

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The encode polynomial options are the four CRC types described in the LTE standard TS 36.212 [1], Section 5.1.1.

Mask applied to checksum, specified as an integer representing a binary word from 0 to 2CRCLength – 1. This mask is typically a Radio Network Temporary Identifier (RNTI).

Algorithms

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When you use vector or integer input, the block implements a parallel CRC algorithm [2]. The implementation is the same as the algorithm used by the Communications Toolbox™ blocks General CRC Generator HDL Optimized and General CRC Syndrome Detector HDL Optimized.

To provide high throughput for modern communications systems, the block implements the CRC algorithm with a parallel architecture. This architecture recursively calculates M bits of a CRC checksum for each W input bits. At the end of the frame, the final checksum result is appended to the message. For a polynomial length of M, the recursive checksum calculation for W bits in parallel is

X'=FW(×)X(+)D.

FW is an M-by-M matrix that selects elements of the current state for the polynomial calculation with the new input bits. D is an M-element vector that provides the new input bits, ordered in relation to the generator polynomial and padded with zeros. The block implements the (×) with logical AND and (+) with logical XOR.

References

[1] 3GPP TS 36.212. "Multiplexing and channel coding." 3rd Generation Partnership Project; Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA). URL: https://www.3gpp.org.

[2] Campobello, Giuseppe, Giuseppe Patane, and Marco Russo. "Parallel CRC Realization." IEEE Transactions on Computers. Vol. 52, No. 10, October 2003, pp. 1312–1319.

Extended Capabilities

See Also

Blocks

Functions

Introduced in R2017b