# Calculating the Bit error rate (BER) for a Visible Light Communication (VLC)

73 views (last 30 days)
Haitham AL Satai on 27 Jul 2022
Commented: Haitham AL Satai on 20 Dec 2022
I am trying to calculate the bit error rate (BER) for a visible light communication LED source.
Based on the code of this link Number of bit errors and bit error rate (BER) I calculate the BER. Unfortunately, the results that I got were unreasonable as shown below:
their results like below:
Why is my estimated BER so far off from the theoretical one?
Is there anyone who calculated the BER for a VLC before? May I get an assistance, please?
close all;
clear variables;
clc;
%% Simulation Parameters
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%% Main Simulation Parameters %%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%-------------------------%
% NUMBER OF LIGHT SOURCES %
%-------------------------%
N_t = 1; % Number of light sources
% Set the simulation parameters.
M = 64; % Modulation order
k = log2(M); % Bits per symbol
EbNoVec = (5:15)'; % Eb/No values (dB)
numSymPerFrame = 100; % Number of QAM symbols per frame
n = 34560; % Number of transmitted bits
N_iter = 1;
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%% AP Parameters %%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%------------------------%
% LIGHT SOURCES GEOMETRY %
%------------------------%
L = 20; W = 20; H = 3; % Length, width and height of the room (m)
theta_half = 30;
m = -log(2)./log(cosd(theta_half)); % Lambertian order of emission
coord_t = [0 0 0]; % Positions of the light sources
n_t_LED = [0, 0, -1]; n_t_LED = n_t_LED/norm(n_t_LED); % Normalized normal vector of each light source
n_t = repmat(n_t_LED, N_t, 1); % Normalized normal vectors of the light sources
%-------------------------------------%
% LIGHT SOURCES ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS %
%-------------------------------------%
P_LED = 2.84; % Average electrical power consummed by each light source (W)
param_t = {coord_t, n_t, P_LED, m};
%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%%%% Rx Parameters %%%%
%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%
%--------------------------%
% PHOTODETECTOR PARAMETERS %
%--------------------------%
A_det = 1e-4; % Photoreceiver sensitive area (mÂ²)
FOV = 60*pi/180; % Fielf-of-view of the photoreceiver
T_s = 1; % Gain of the optical filter (ignore if not used)
index = 1.5; % Refractive index of the Rx concentrator/lens (ignore if not used)
G_Con = (index^2)/sin(FOV); % Gain of an optical concentrator; ignore if no lens is used
n_r = [0, 0, 1]; % Normal vector of the photoreceiver
n_r = n_r/norm(n_r); % Normal vector of the photoreceiver (normalized)
%---------------------------%
%---------------------------%
step = 0.5; % Distance between each receiving point (m)
X_r = -L/2:step:L/2; % Range of Rx points along x axis
Y_r = -W/2:step:W/2; % Range of Rx points along y axis
N_rx = length(X_r); N_ry = length(Y_r); % Number of reception points simulated along the x and y axis
z_ref = 0.85; % Height of the receiver plane from the ground (m)
z = z_ref-H; % z = -1.65; % Height of the Rx points ("-" because coordinates system origin at the center of the ceiling)
if( abs(z) > H )
fprintf('ERROR: The receiver plane is out of the room.\n');
return
end
param_r = {A_det, n_r, FOV}; % Vector of the Rx parameters used for channel simulation
berEst = zeros(size(EbNoVec));
for n = 1:length(EbNoVec)
snrdB = EbNoVec(n) + 10*log10(k);
numErrs = 0;
numBits = 0;
while numErrs < 200 && numBits < 1e7
data = randi([0 1],numSymPerFrame,k);
dataSym = bi2de(data);
txSignal = qammod(dataSym,M);
% LOS received optical power calculation
H0_LOS = zeros(N_rx,N_ry,N_t);
P_rec_dbm = zeros(N_rx,N_ry,N_t);
%rxSignal = zeros(N_t,length(txSignal));
T = param_t{1}(1,:);
P_t = param_t{3};
for r_x = 1:N_rx
for r_y = 1:N_ry
for i_t = 1:N_t
x = X_r(r_x); y = Y_r(r_y);
R = [x,y,z];
v_tr = (R-T)./norm(R-T);
d_tr = sqrt(dot(R-T,R-T));
phi = 0;
psi = 0;
H0_LOS(r_x,r_y,i_t)= (m+1)*A_det/(2*pi*d_tr^2)*cosd(phi)^m*cosd(psi);
end
end
end
rx = (txSignal).*(H0_LOS(r_x,r_y,i_t)*G_Con*T_s); % Photocurrent produced by the PD without noise (A)
rxSignal = awgn(rx,snrdB,'measured');
rxSym = qamdemod(rxSignal,M);
dataOut = de2bi(rxSym,k);
nErrors = biterr(data,dataOut);
numErrs = numErrs + nErrors;
numBits = numBits + numSymPerFrame*k;
end
% Estimate the BER
berEst(n) = numErrs/numBits;
end
%Determine the theoretical BER curve by using the berawgn function.
berTheory = berawgn(EbNoVec,'qam',M);
P_r_LOS = P_t.*H0_LOS.*T_s.*G_Con;
P_rec_dBm = 10*log10(P_r_LOS*1000);
% Plot the estimated and theoretical BER data. The estimated BER data
% points are well aligned with the theoretical curve.
figure
semilogy(EbNoVec,berEst,'*')
hold on
semilogy(EbNoVec,berTheory)
grid
legend('Estimated BER','Theoretical BER')
xlabel('Eb/No (dB)')
ylabel('Bit Error Rate')
Haitham AL Satai on 20 Dec 2022
@kim zheng cho You are most welcome. U can send me an email if you want haitham.al-satai@uvsq.fr.

### Categories

Find more on Test and Measurement in Help Center and File Exchange

### Community Treasure Hunt

Find the treasures in MATLAB Central and discover how the community can help you!

Start Hunting!

Translated by