maxPooling3dLayer

3-D max pooling layer

Description

A 3-D max pooling layer performs down-sampling by dividing three-dimensional input into cuboidal pooling regions, and computing the maximum of each region.

Creation

Syntax

layer = maxPooling3dLayer(poolSize)
layer = maxPooling3dLayer(poolSize,Name,Value)

Description

layer = maxPooling3dLayer(poolSize) creates a 3-D max pooling layer and sets the PoolSize property.

example

layer = maxPooling3dLayer(poolSize,Name,Value) sets the optional Stride and Name properties using name-value pairs. To specify input padding, use the 'Padding' name-value pair argument. For example, maxPooling3dLayer(2,'Stride',3) creates a 3-D max pooling layer with pool size [2 2 2] and stride [3 3 3]. You can specify multiple name-value pairs. Enclose each property name in single quotes.

Input Arguments

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Name-Value Pair Arguments

Use comma-separated name-value pair arguments to specify the size of the padding to add along the edges of the layer input and to set the Stride and Name properties. Enclose names in single quotes.

Example: maxPooling3dLayer(2,'Stride',3) creates a 3-D max pooling layer with pool size [2 2 2] and stride [3 3 3].

Input edge padding, specified as the comma-separated pair consisting of 'Padding' and one of these values:

  • 'same' — Add padding of size calculated by the software at training or prediction time so that the output has the same size as the input when the stride equals 1. If the stride is larger than 1, then the output size is ceil(inputSize/stride), where inputSize is the height, width, or depth of the input and stride is the stride in the corresponding dimension. The software adds the same amount of padding to the top and bottom, to the left and right, and to the front and back, if possible. If the padding in a given dimension has an odd value, then the software adds the extra padding to the input as postpadding. In other words, the software adds extra vertical padding to the bottom, extra horizontal padding to the right, and extra depth padding to the back of the input.

  • Nonnegative integer p — Add padding of size p to all the edges of the input.

  • Three-element vector [a b c] of nonnegative integers — Add padding of size a to the top and bottom, padding of size b to the left and right, and padding of size c to the front and back of the input.

  • 2-by-3 matrix [t l f;b r k] of nonnegative integers — Add padding of size t to the top, b to the bottom, l to the left, r to the right, f to the front, and k to the back of the input. In other words, the top row specifies the prepadding and the second row defines the postpadding in the three dimensions.

Example: 'Padding',1 adds one row of padding to the top and bottom, one column of padding to the left and right, and one plane of padding to the front and back of the input.

Example: 'Padding','same' adds padding so that the output has the same size as the input (if the stride equals 1).

Properties

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Max Pooling

Dimensions of the pooling regions, specified as a vector of three positive integers [h w d], where h is the height, w is the width, and d is the depth. When creating the layer, you can specify PoolSize as a scalar to use the same value for all three dimensions.

If the stride dimensions Stride are less than the respective pooling dimensions, then the pooling regions overlap.

The padding dimensions PaddingSize must be less than the pooling region dimensions PoolSize.

Example: [2 1 1] specifies pooling regions of height 2, width 1, and depth 1.

Step size for traversing the input in three dimensions, specified as a vector [a b c] of three positive integers, where a is the vertical step size, b is the horizontal step size, and c is the step size along the depth direction. When creating the layer, you can specify Stride as a scalar to use the same value for step sizes in all three directions.

If the stride dimensions Stride are less than the respective pooling dimensions, then the pooling regions overlap.

The padding dimensions PaddingSize must be less than the pooling region dimensions PoolSize.

Example: [2 3 1] specifies a vertical step size of 2, a horizontal step size of 3, and a step size along the depth of 1.

Size of padding to apply to input borders, specified as 2-by-3 matrix [t l f;b r k] of nonnegative integers, where t and b are the padding applied to the top and bottom in the vertical direction, l and r are the padding applied to the left and right in the horizontal direction, and f and k are the padding applied to the front and back along the depth. In other words, the top row specifies the prepadding and the second row defines the postpadding in the three dimensions.

When you create a layer, use the 'Padding' name-value pair argument to specify the padding size.

Example: [1 2 4;1 2 4] adds one row of padding to the top and bottom, two columns of padding to the left and right, and four planes of padding to the front and back of the input.

Method to determine padding size, specified as 'manual' or 'same'.

The software automatically sets the value of PaddingMode based on the 'Padding' value you specify when creating a layer.

  • If you set the 'Padding' option to a scalar or a vector of nonnegative integers, then the software automatically sets PaddingMode to 'manual'.

  • If you set the 'Padding' option to 'same', then the software automatically sets PaddingMode to 'same' and calculates the size of the padding at training time so that the output has the same size as the input when the stride equals 1. If the stride is larger than 1, then the output size is ceil(inputSize/stride), where inputSize is the height, width, or depth of the input and stride is the stride in the corresponding dimension. The software adds the same amount of padding to the top and bottom, to the left and right, and to the front and back, if possible. If the padding in a given dimension has an odd value, then the software adds the extra padding to the input as postpadding. In other words, the software adds extra vertical padding to the bottom, extra horizontal padding to the right, and extra depth padding to the back of the input.

Layer

Layer name, specified as a character vector or a string scalar. To include a layer in a layer graph, you must specify a nonempty unique layer name. If you train a series network with the layer and Name is set to '', then the software automatically assigns a name to the layer at training time.

Data Types: char | string

Number of inputs of the layer. This layer accepts a single input only.

Data Types: double

Input names of the layer. This layer accepts a single input only.

Data Types: cell

Number of outputs of the layer. This layer has a single output only.

Data Types: double

Output names of the layer. This layer has a single output only.

Data Types: cell

Examples

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Create a max pooling 3-D layer with nonoverlapping pooling regions.

layer = maxPooling3dLayer(2,'Stride',2)
layer = 
  MaxPooling3DLayer with properties:

           Name: ''
     NumOutputs: 1
    OutputNames: {'out'}

   Hyperparameters
       PoolSize: [2 2 2]
         Stride: [2 2 2]
    PaddingMode: 'manual'
    PaddingSize: [2x3 double]

The height, width, and depth of the cuboidal regions (pool size) are 2. The step size for traversing the images (stride) is 2 in all dimensions. The pooling regions do not overlap because the stride is greater than or equal to the corresponding pool size in all dimensions.

Include a max pooling layer with nonoverlapping regions in a Layer array.

layers = [ ...
    image3dInputLayer([28 28 28 3])
    convolution3dLayer(5,20)
    reluLayer
    maxPooling3dLayer(2,'Stride',2)
    fullyConnectedLayer(10)
    softmaxLayer
    classificationLayer]
layers = 
  7x1 Layer array with layers:

     1   ''   3-D Image Input         28x28x28x3 images with 'zerocenter' normalization
     2   ''   Convolution             20 5x5x5 convolutions with stride [1  1  1] and padding [0  0  0; 0  0  0]
     3   ''   ReLU                    ReLU
     4   ''   3-D Max Pooling         2x2x2 max pooling with stride [2  2  2] and padding [0  0  0; 0  0  0]
     5   ''   Fully Connected         10 fully connected layer
     6   ''   Softmax                 softmax
     7   ''   Classification Output   crossentropyex

Create a max pooling 3-D layer with overlapping pooling regions and padding for the top and bottom of the input.

layer = maxPooling3dLayer([3 2 2],'Stride',2,'Padding',[1 0 0])
layer = 
  MaxPooling3DLayer with properties:

                   Name: ''
    HasUnpoolingOutputs: 0

   Hyperparameters
               PoolSize: [3 2 2]
                 Stride: [2 2 2]
            PaddingMode: 'manual'
            PaddingSize: [1 1 0 0 0 0]

This layer creates pooling regions of size 3-by-2-by-2 and takes the maximum of the twelve elements in each region. The stride is 2 in all dimensions. The pooling regions overlap because there are stride dimensions Stride that are less than the respective pooling dimensions PoolSize.

More About

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Introduced in R2019a