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One-Quadrant Chopper

Controller-driven one-quadrant chopper

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  • Simscape / Electrical / Semiconductors & Converters / Converters

  • One-Quadrant Chopper block

Description

The One-Quadrant Chopper block represents a one-quadrant controlled chopper for converting a fixed DC input to a variable DC output.

The circuit topology and quadrant depend on the class of chopper that you specify.

A first-quadrant or class A chopper contains a power switch and a diode.

A second-quadrant or class B chopper also contains a power switch and a diode.

For either topology, the switch S can be a fully controlled switching device (for example, an IGBT or GTO) or a partially controlled switching device (for example, a thyristor).

Options for the switching device type are:

  • GTO — Gate turn-off thyristor. For information about the I-V characteristic of the device, see GTO.

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — For information about the I-V characteristic of the device, see Ideal Semiconductor Switch.

  • IGBT — Insulated-gate bipolar transistor. For information about the I-V characteristic of the device, see IGBT (Ideal, Switching).

  • MOSFET — N-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. For information about the I-V characteristic of the device, see MOSFET (Ideal, Switching).

  • Thyristor — For information about the I-V characteristic of the device, see Thyristor (Piecewise Linear).

  • Averaged Switch.

Model

There are two model variants for the block. To access the model variants, in the model window, right-click the block. From the context menu, select Simscape > Block choices.

The model variants are:

  • PS control port — Chopper with a physical signal port. This block choice is the default.

  • Electrical control ports — Chopper with one positive and one negative electrical conserving port. To control switching device gates using Simscape™ Electrical™ blocks, select this option.

Protection

An inductive load can produce a high reverse-voltage spike when the semiconductor device suddenly switches off the voltage supply to the load. To protect the semiconductor device, an integral protection diode provides a conduction path for reverse current.

To include and configure the internal protection diode block for the S switching device, use the Diode parameters. This table shows how to set the Model dynamics parameter based on your goals.

GoalsValue to SelectIntegral Protection Diode
Do not include protection.NoneNone
Include protection.Prioritize simulation speed.Diode with no dynamicsThe Diode block
Prioritize model fidelity by precisely specifying reverse-mode charge dynamics.Diode with charge dynamicsThe dynamic model of the Diode block

You can also include a snubber circuit for each switching device. Snubber circuits contain a series-connected resistor and capacitor. They protect switching devices against high voltages that inductive loads produce when the device turns off the voltage supply to the load. Snubber circuits also prevent excessive rates of current change when a switching device turns on.

To include and configure a snubber circuit for each switching device, use the Snubbers parameters.

Gate Control

You can connect gate-control voltage signals to the gate ports of the switching devices.

  • For the PS control port model:

    1. Convert a Simulink® gate-control voltage signal to a physical signal using a Simulink-PS Converter block.

    2. Connect the Simulink-PS Converter block to the G port.

  • For the electrical control ports model:

    1. Connect a Simscape electrical-domain positive DC voltage signal to the G+ port.

    2. Connect the Simscape electrical-domain negative DC voltage signal to the G- port.

Ports

Input

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Physical signal port associated with the gate terminals of the switching device.

Dependencies

This port is enabled only for the PS control port block choice.

Data Types: double

Conserving

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Positive electrical conserving port associated with the positive gate terminal of the switching device.

Dependencies

This port is enabled only for the Electrical control ports block choice.

Data Types: double

Negative electrical conserving port associated with the negative gate terminal of the switching device.

Dependencies

This port is enabled only for the Electrical control ports block choice.

Data Types: double

Electrical conserving port associated with the positive terminal of the first DC voltage.

Data Types: double

Electrical conserving port associated with the negative terminal of the first DC voltage.

Data Types: double

Electrical conserving port associated with the positive terminal of the second DC voltage.

Data Types: double

Electrical conserving port associated with the negative terminal of the second DC voltage.

Data Types: double

Parameters

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Switching Devices

This table shows how the visibility of Switching Devices parameters depends on the Switching device that you select. To learn how to read the table, see Parameter Dependencies.

Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies

Switching Device
Chopper type — Choose Class A - first quadrant or Class B - second quadrant.
Switching device — Choose Ideal Semiconductor Switch, GTO, IGBT, MOSFET, Thyristor, or Averaged Switch.
Ideal Semiconductor SwitchGTOIGBTMOSFETThyristorAveraged Switch
On-state resistanceForward voltageForward voltageDrain-source on resistanceForward voltageOn-state resistance
Off-state conductanceOn-state resistanceOn-state resistanceOff-state conductanceOn-state resistance
Threshold voltageOff-state conductanceOff-state conductanceThreshold voltageOff-state conductance
Gate trigger voltage, VgtThreshold voltageGate trigger voltage, Vgt
Gate turn-off voltage, Vgt_offGate turn-off voltage, Vgt_off
Holding currentHolding current

Chopper class.

Switching device type for the converter.

Dependencies

See the Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

For the different switching device types, the Forward voltage is taken as:

  • GTO — Minimum voltage required across the anode and cathode block ports for the gradient of the device I-V characteristic to be 1/Ron, where Ron is the value of On-state resistance

  • IGBT — Minimum voltage required across the collector and emitter block ports for the gradient of the diode I-V characteristic to be 1/Ron, where Ron is the value of On-state resistance

  • Thyristor — Minimum voltage required for the device to turn on

Dependencies

See the Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

For the different switching device types, the On-state resistance is taken as:

  • GTO — Rate of change of voltage versus current above the forward voltage

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — Anode-cathode resistance when the device is on

  • IGBT — Collector-emitter resistance when the device is on

  • Thyristor — Anode-cathode resistance when the device is on

  • Averaged switch — Anode-cathode resistance when the device is on

Dependencies

See the Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Resistance between the drain and the source, which also depends on the gate-to-source voltage.

Dependencies

See the Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Conductance when the device is off. The value must be less than 1/R, where R is the value of On-state resistance.

For the different switching device types, the On-state resistance is taken as:

  • GTO — Anode-cathode conductance

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — Anode-cathode conductance

  • IGBT — Collector-emitter conductance

  • MOSFET — Drain-source conductance

  • Thyristor — Anode-cathode conductance

Dependencies

See the Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate voltage threshold. The device turns on when the gate voltage is above this value. For the different switching device types, the device voltage of interest is:

  • Ideal semiconductor switch — Gate-emitter voltage

  • IGBT — Gate-cathode voltage

  • MOSFET — Gate-source voltage

Dependencies

See the Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate-cathode voltage threshold. The device turns on when the gate-cathode voltage is above this value.

Dependencies

See the Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate-cathode voltage threshold. The device turns off when the gate-cathode voltage is below this value.

Dependencies

See the Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Gate current threshold. The device stays on when the current is above this value, even when the gate-cathode voltage falls below the gate trigger voltage.

Dependencies

See the Switching Devices Parameter Dependencies table.

Diode

The visibility of Diode parameters depends on how you configure the protection diode Model dynamics and Reverse recovery time parameterization parameters. To learn how to read this table, see Parameter Dependencies.

Diode Parameter Dependencies

Diode
Model dynamics — Choose Diode with no dynamics or Diode with charge dynamics.
Diode with no dynamicsDiode with charge dynamics
Forward voltageForward voltage
On resistanceOn resistance
Off conductanceOff conductance
Junction capacitance
Peak reverse current, iRM
Initial forward current when measuring iRM
Rate of change of current when measuring iRM
Reverse recovery time parameterization — Choose Specify stretch factor, Specify reverse recovery time directly, or Specify reverse recovery charge.
Specify stretch factorSpecify reverse recovery time directlySpecify reverse recovery charge
Reverse recovery time stretch factorReverse recovery time, trrReverse recovery charge, Qrr

Diode type. The options are:

  • Diode with no dynamics — Select this option to prioritize simulation speed using the Diode block.

  • Diode with charge dynamics — Select this option to prioritize model fidelity in terms of reverse mode charge dynamics using the commutation model of the Diode block.

Note

If you select Averaged Switch for the Switching Device parameter in the Switching Device setting, this parameter is not visible and Diode with no dynamics is automatically selected.

Dependencies

See the Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Minimum voltage required across the positive and negative block ports for the gradient of the diode I-V characteristic to be 1/Ron, where Ron is the value of On resistance.

Rate of change of voltage versus current above the Forward voltage.

Conductance of the reverse-biased diode.

Diode junction capacitance.

Dependencies

See the Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Peak reverse current measured by an external test circuit.

Dependencies

See the Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Initial forward current when measuring peak reverse current. This value must be greater than zero.

Dependencies

See the Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Rate of change of current when measuring peak reverse current.

Dependencies

See the Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Model for parameterizing the recovery time. When you select Specify stretch factor or Specify reverse recovery charge, you can specify a value that the block uses to derive the reverse recovery time. For more information on these options, see How the Block Calculates TM and Tau.

Dependencies

See the Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Value that the block uses to calculate Reverse recovery time, trr. Specifying the stretch factor is an easier way to parameterize the reverse recovery time than specifying the reverse recovery charge. The larger the value of the stretch factor, the longer it takes for the reverse recovery current to dissipate.

Dependencies

See the Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Interval between the time when the current initially goes to zero (when the diode turns off) and the time when the current falls to less than 10 percent of the peak reverse current.

The value of the Reverse recovery time, trr parameter must be greater than the value of the Peak reverse current, iRM parameter divided by the value of the Rate of change of current when measuring iRM parameter.

Dependencies

See the Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Value that the block uses to calculate Reverse recovery time, trr. Use this parameter if the data sheet for your diode device specifies a value for the reverse recovery charge instead of a value for the reverse recovery time.

The reverse recovery charge is the total charge that continues to dissipate when the diode turns off. The value must be less than i2RM2a,

where:

  • iRM is the value specified for Peak reverse current, iRM.

  • a is the value specified for Rate of change of current when measuring iRM.

Dependencies

See the Diode Parameter Dependencies table.

Snubbers

The Snubbers parameters tab is not visible if you set Switching device to Averaged Switch.

The table summarizes the Snubbers parameter dependencies. To learn how to read the table, see Parameter Dependencies.

Snubbers Parameter Dependencies

Snubbers
Snubber — Choose None or RC Snubber.
NoneRC Snubber
Snubber resistance
Snubber capacitance

Switching device snubber.

Dependencies

See the Snubbers Parameter Dependencies table.

Resistance of the switching device snubber.

Dependencies

See the Snubbers Parameter Dependencies table.

Capacitance of the switching device snubber.

Dependencies

See the Snubbers Parameter Dependencies table.

References

[1] Trzynadlowski, A. M. Introduction to Modern Power Electronics. 2nd Ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2010.

Extended Capabilities

C/C++ Code Generation
Generate C and C++ code using Simulink® Coder™.

Introduced in R2018b