Discriminant analysis

`class = classify(sample,training,group)`

class = classify(sample,training,group,'* type*')

class = classify(sample,training,group,'

`type`

`prior`

[class,err] = classify(...)

[class,err,POSTERIOR] = classify(...)

[class,err,POSTERIOR,logp] = classify(...)

[class,err,POSTERIOR,logp,coeff] = classify(...)

`class = classify(sample,training,group)`

classifies
each row of the data in `sample`

into one of the groups in
`training`

. `sample`

and
`training`

must be matrices with the same number of columns.
`group`

is a grouping variable for `training`

. Its
unique values define groups; each element defines the group to which the corresponding
row of `training`

belongs. `group`

can be a
categorical variable, a numeric vector, a character array, a string array, or a cell
array of character vectors. `training`

and `group`

must have the same number of rows. `classify`

treats
`<undefined>`

values, `NaN`

s, empty character
vectors, empty strings, and `<missing>`

string values in
`group`

as missing data values, and ignores the corresponding rows
of `training`

. The output `class`

indicates the group
to which each row of `sample`

has been assigned, and is of the same
type as `group`

.

`class = classify(sample,training,group,'`

allows
you to specify the type of discriminant function. Specify * type*')

`type`

`type`

`linear`

— Fits a multivariate normal density to each group, with a pooled estimate of covariance. This is the default.`diaglinear`

— Similar to`linear`

, but with a diagonal covariance matrix estimate (naive Bayes classifiers).`quadratic`

— Fits multivariate normal densities with covariance estimates stratified by group.`diagquadratic`

— Similar to`quadratic`

, but with a diagonal covariance matrix estimate (naive Bayes classifiers).`mahalanobis`

— Uses Mahalanobis distances with stratified covariance estimates.

`class = classify(sample,training,group,'`

allows
you to specify prior probabilities for the groups. * type*',

`prior`

`prior`

A numeric vector the same length as the number of unique values in

`group`

(or the number of levels defined for`group`

, if`group`

is categorical). If`group`

is numeric or categorical, the order ofmust correspond to the ordered values in`prior`

`group`

. Otherwise, the order ofmust correspond to the order of the first occurrence of the values in`prior`

`group`

.A 1-by-1 structure with fields:

`prob`

— A numeric vector.`group`

— Of the same type as`group`

, containing unique values indicating the groups to which the elements of`prob`

correspond.

As a structure,

can contain groups that do not appear in`prior`

`group`

. This can be useful if`training`

is a subset a larger training set.`classify`

ignores any groups that appear in the structure but not in the`group`

array.The character vector or string scalar

`'empirical'`

, indicating that group prior probabilities should be estimated from the group relative frequencies in`training`

.

* prior* defaults to a numeric vector
of equal probabilities, i.e., a uniform distribution.

`prior`

`[class,err] = classify(...)`

also
returns an estimate `err`

of the misclassification
error rate based on the `training`

data. `classify`

returns
the apparent error rate, i.e., the percentage of observations in `training`

that
are misclassified, weighted by the prior probabilities for the groups.

`[class,err,POSTERIOR] = classify(...)`

also
returns a matrix `POSTERIOR`

of estimates of the
posterior probabilities that the *j*th training group
was the source of the *i*th sample observation, i.e., *Pr*(*group
j*|*obs i*). `POSTERIOR`

is
not computed for Mahalanobis discrimination.

`[class,err,POSTERIOR,logp] = classify(...)`

also
returns a vector `logp`

containing estimates of the
logarithms of the unconditional predictive probability density of
the sample observations, *p*(*obs i*)
= ∑*p*(*obs i*|*group
j*)*Pr*(*group j*) over
all groups. `logp`

is not computed for Mahalanobis
discrimination.

`[class,err,POSTERIOR,logp,coeff] = classify(...)`

also
returns a structure array `coeff`

containing coefficients
of the boundary curves between pairs of groups. Each element `coeff(I,J)`

contains information for comparing group `I`

to group `J`

in
the following fields:

`type`

— Type of discriminant function, from theinput.`type`

`name1`

— Name of the first group.`name2`

— Name of the second group.`const`

— Constant term of the boundary equation (K)`linear`

— Linear coefficients of the boundary equation (L)`quadratic`

— Quadratic coefficient matrix of the boundary equation (Q)

For the `linear`

and `diaglinear`

types,
the `quadratic`

field is absent, and a row `x`

from
the `sample`

array is classified into group `I`

rather
than group `J`

if `0 < K+x*L`

.
For the other types, `x`

is classified into group `I`

if ```
0
< K+x*L+x*Q*x'
```

.

The `fitcdiscr`

function also performs
discriminant analysis. You can train a classifier by using the
`fitcdiscr`

function and predict labels of new data by using the
`predict`

function. The
`fitcdiscr`

supports cross-validation and hyperparameter
optimization and does not require you to fit the classifier every time you make a new
prediction or you change prior probabilities.

[1] Krzanowski, W. J. *Principles
of Multivariate Analysis: A User's Perspective*. New York:
Oxford University Press, 1988.

[2] Seber, G. A. F. *Multivariate
Observations*. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.,
1984.