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Unsupervised Medical Image Denoising Using CycleGAN

This example shows how to generate high-quality high-dose computed tomography (CT) images from noisy low-dose CT images using a CycleGAN neural network.

This example uses a cycle-consistent generative adversarial network (CycleGAN) trained on patches of image data from a large sample of data. For a similar approach using a UNIT neural network trained on full images from a limited sample of data, see Unsupervised Medical Image Denoising Using CycleGAN.

X-ray CT is a popular imaging modality used in clinical and industrial applications because it produces high-quality images and offers superior diagnostic capabilities. To protect the safety of patients, clinicians recommend a low radiation dose. However, a low radiation dose results in a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the images, and therefore reduces the diagnostic accuracy.

Deep learning techniques offer solutions to improve the image quality for low-dose CT (LDCT) images. Using a generative adversarial network (GAN) for image-to-image translation, you can convert noisy LDCT images to images of the same quality as regular-dose CT images. For this application, the source domain consists of LDCT images and the target domain consists of regular-dose images.

CT image denoising requires a GAN that performs unsupervised training because clinicians do not typically acquire matching pairs of low-dose and regular-dose CT images of the same patient in the same session. This example uses a CycleGAN architecture that supports unsupervised training. For more information, see Get Started with GANs for Image-to-Image Translation.

Download LDCT Data Set

This example uses data from the Low Dose CT Grand Challenge [2, 3, 4]. The data includes pairs of regular-dose CT images and simulated low-dose CT images for 99 head scans (labeled N for neuro), 100 chest scans (labeled C for chest), and 100 abdomen scans (labeled L for liver). The size of the data set is 1.2 TB.

Set dataDir as the desired location of the data set.

dataDir = fullfile(tempdir,"LDCT","LDCT-and-Projection-data");

To download the data, go to the Cancer Imaging Archive website. This example uses only images from the chest. Download the chest files from the "Images (DICOM, 952 GB)" data set into the directory specified by dataDir using the NBIA Data Retriever. When the download is successful, dataDir contains 50 subfolders with names such as "C002" and "C004", ending with "C296".

Create Datastores for Training, Validation, and Testing

The LDCT data set provides pairs of low-dose and high-dose CT images. However, the CycleGAN architecture requires unpaired data for unsupervised learning. This example simulates unpaired training and validation data by partitioning images such that the patients used to obtain low-dose CT and high-dose CT images do not overlap. The example retains pairs of low-dose and regular-dose images for testing.

Split the data into training, validation, and test data sets using the createLDCTFolderList helper function. This function is attached to the example as a supporting file. The helper function splits the data such that there is roughly good representation of the two types of images in each group. Approximately 80% of the data is used for training, 15% is used for testing, and 5% is used for validation.

maxDirsForABodyPart = 25;
[filesTrainLD,filesTrainHD,filesTestLD,filesTestHD,filesValLD,filesValHD] = ...
    createLDCTFolderList(dataDir,maxDirsForABodyPart);

Create image datastores that contain training and validation images for both domains, namely low-dose CT images and high-dose CT images. The data set consists of DICOM images, so use the custom ReadFcn name-value argument in imageDatastore to enable reading the data.

exts = {'.dcm'};
readFcn = @(x)dicomread(x);
imdsTrainLD = imageDatastore(filesTrainLD,FileExtensions=exts,ReadFcn=readFcn);
imdsTrainHD = imageDatastore(filesTrainHD,FileExtensions=exts,ReadFcn=readFcn);
imdsValLD = imageDatastore(filesValLD,FileExtensions=exts,ReadFcn=readFcn);
imdsValHD = imageDatastore(filesValHD,FileExtensions=exts,ReadFcn=readFcn);
imdsTestLD = imageDatastore(filesTestLD,FileExtensions=exts,ReadFcn=readFcn);
imdsTestHD = imageDatastore(filesTestHD,FileExtensions=exts,ReadFcn=readFcn);

The number of low-dose and high-dose images can differ. Select a subset of the files such that the number of images is equal.

numTrain = min(numel(imdsTrainLD.Files),numel(imdsTrainHD.Files));
imdsTrainLD = subset(imdsTrainLD,1:numTrain);
imdsTrainHD = subset(imdsTrainHD,1:numTrain);

numVal = min(numel(imdsValLD.Files),numel(imdsValHD.Files));
imdsValLD = subset(imdsValLD,1:numVal);
imdsValHD = subset(imdsValHD,1:numVal);

numTest = min(numel(imdsTestLD.Files),numel(imdsTestHD.Files));
imdsTestLD = subset(imdsTestLD,1:numTest);
imdsTestHD = subset(imdsTestHD,1:numTest);

Preprocess and Augment Data

Preprocess the data by using the transform function with custom preprocessing operations specified by the normalizeCTImages helper function. This function is attached to the example as a supporting file. The normalizeCTImages function rescales the data to the range [-1, 1].

timdsTrainLD = transform(imdsTrainLD,@(x){normalizeCTImages(x)});
timdsTrainHD = transform(imdsTrainHD,@(x){normalizeCTImages(x)});
timdsValLD = transform(imdsValLD,@(x){normalizeCTImages(x)});
timdsValHD  = transform(imdsValHD,@(x){normalizeCTImages(x)});
timdsTestLD = transform(imdsTestLD,@(x){normalizeCTImages(x)});
timdsTestHD  = transform(imdsTestHD,@(x){normalizeCTImages(x)});

Combine the low-dose and high-dose training data by using a randomPatchExtractionDatastore. When reading from this datastore, augment the data using random rotation and horizontal reflection.

inputSize = [128,128,1];
augmenter = imageDataAugmenter(RandRotation=@()90*(randi([0,1],1)),RandXReflection=true);
dsTrain = randomPatchExtractionDatastore(timdsTrainLD,timdsTrainHD, ...
    inputSize(1:2),PatchesPerImage=16,DataAugmentation=augmenter);

Combine the validation data by using a randomPatchExtractionDatastore. You do not need to perform augmentation when reading validation data.

dsVal = randomPatchExtractionDatastore(timdsValLD,timdsValHD,inputSize(1:2));

Visualize Data Set

Look at a few low-dose and high-dose image patch pairs from the training set. Notice that the image pairs of low-dose (left) and high-dose (right) images are unpaired, as they are from different patients.

numImagePairs = 6;
imagePairsTrain = [];
for i = 1:numImagePairs
    imLowAndHighDose = read(dsTrain);
    inputImage = imLowAndHighDose.InputImage{1};
    inputImage = rescale(im2single(inputImage));
    responseImage = imLowAndHighDose.ResponseImage{1};
    responseImage = rescale(im2single(responseImage));
    imagePairsTrain = cat(4,imagePairsTrain,inputImage,responseImage);
end
montage(imagePairsTrain,Size=[numImagePairs 2],BorderSize=4,BackgroundColor="w")

Batch Training and Validation Data During Training

This example uses a custom training loop. The minibatchqueue (Deep Learning Toolbox) object is useful for managing the mini-batching of observations in custom training loops. The minibatchqueue object also casts data to a dlarray object that enables auto differentiation in deep learning applications.

Process the mini-batches by concatenating image patches along the batch dimension using the helper function concatenateMiniBatchLD2HDCT. This function is attached to the example as a supporting file. Specify the mini-batch data extraction format as "SSCB" (spatial, spatial, channel, batch). Discard any partial mini-batches with less than miniBatchSize observations.

miniBatchSize = 32;

mbqTrain = minibatchqueue(dsTrain, ...
    MiniBatchSize=miniBatchSize, ...
    MiniBatchFcn=@concatenateMiniBatchLD2HDCT, ...
    PartialMiniBatch="discard", ...
    MiniBatchFormat="SSCB");
mbqVal = minibatchqueue(dsVal, ...
    MiniBatchSize=miniBatchSize, ...
    MiniBatchFcn=@concatenateMiniBatchLD2HDCT, ...
    PartialMiniBatch="discard", ...
    MiniBatchFormat="SSCB");

Create Generator and Discriminator Networks

The CycleGAN consists of two generators and two discriminators. The generators perform image-to-image translation from low-dose to high-dose and vice versa. The discriminators are PatchGAN networks that return the patch-wise probability that the input data is real or generated. One discriminator distinguishes between the real and generated low-dose images and the other discriminator distinguishes between real and generated high-dose images.

Create each generator network using the cycleGANGenerator function. For an input size of 256-by-256 pixels, specify the NumResidualBlocks argument as 9. By default, the function has 3 encoder modules and uses 64 filters in the first convolutional layer.

numResiduals = 6; 
genHD2LD = cycleGANGenerator(inputSize,NumResidualBlocks=numResiduals,NumOutputChannels=1);
genLD2HD = cycleGANGenerator(inputSize,NumResidualBlocks=numResiduals,NumOutputChannels=1);

Create each discriminator network using the patchGANDiscriminator function. Use the default settings for the number of downsampling blocks and number of filters in the first convolutional layer in the discriminators.

discLD = patchGANDiscriminator(inputSize);
discHD = patchGANDiscriminator(inputSize);

Define Loss Functions and Scores

The modelGradients helper function calculates the gradients and losses for the discriminators and generators. This function is defined in the Supporting Functions section of this example.

The objective of the generator is to generate translated images that the discriminators classify as real. The generator loss is a weighted sum of three types of losses: adversarial loss, cycle consistency loss, and fidelity loss. Fidelity loss is based on structural similarity (SSIM) loss.

LTotal=LAdversarial+λ*LCycleconsistency+LFidelity

Specify the weighting factor λ that controls the relative significance of the cycle consistency loss with the adversarial and fidelity losses.

lambda = 10;

The objective of each discriminator is to correctly distinguish between real images (1) and translated images (0) for images in its domain. Each discriminator has a single loss function that relies on the mean squared error (MSE) between the expected and predicted output.

Specify Training Options

Train with a mini-batch size of 32 for 3 epochs.

numEpochs = 3;
miniBatchSize = 32;

Specify the options for Adam optimization. For both generator and discriminator networks, use:

  • A learning rate of 0.0002

  • A gradient decay factor of 0.5

  • A squared gradient decay factor of 0.999

learnRate = 0.0002;
gradientDecay = 0.5;
squaredGradientDecayFactor = 0.999;

Initialize Adam parameters for the generators and discriminators.

avgGradGenLD2HD = [];
avgSqGradGenLD2HD = [];
avgGradGenHD2LD = [];
avgSqGradGenHD2LD = [];
avgGradDiscLD = [];
avgSqGradDiscLD = [];
avgGradDiscHD = [];
avgSqGradDiscHD = [];

Display the generated validation images every 100 iterations.

validationFrequency = 100;

Train or Download Model

By default, the example downloads a pretrained version of the CycleGAN generator for low-dose to high-dose CT by using the helper function downloadTrainedLD2HDCTCycleGANNet. The helper function is attached to the example as a supporting file. The pretrained network enables you to run the entire example without waiting for training to complete.

To train the network, set the doTraining variable in the following code to true. Train the model in a custom training loop. For each iteration:

  • Read the data for the current mini-batch using the next (Deep Learning Toolbox) function.

  • Evaluate the model gradients using the dlfeval (Deep Learning Toolbox) function and the modelGradients helper function.

  • Update the network parameters using the adamupdate (Deep Learning Toolbox) function.

  • Display the input and translated images for both the source and target domains after each epoch.

Train on a GPU if one is available. Using a GPU requires Parallel Computing Toolbox™ and a CUDA® enabled NVIDIA® GPU. For more information, see GPU Support by Release (Parallel Computing Toolbox). Training takes about 30 hours on an NVIDIA™ Titan X with 24 GB of GPU memory.

doTraining = false;
if doTraining

    iteration = 0;
    start = tic;

    % Create a directory to store checkpoints
    checkpointDir = fullfile(dataDir,"checkpoints");
    if ~exist(checkpointDir,"dir")
        mkdir(checkpointDir);
    end

    % Initialize plots for training progress
    [figureHandle,tileHandle,imageAxes,scoreAxesX,scoreAxesY, ...
        lineScoreGenLD2HD,lineScoreGenD2LD, ...
        lineScoreDiscHD,lineScoreDiscLD] = initializeTrainingPlotLD2HDCT;

    for epoch = 1:numEpochs

        shuffle(mbqTrain);

        % Loop over mini-batches
        while hasdata(mbqTrain)
            iteration = iteration + 1;

            % Read mini-batch of data
            [imageLD,imageHD] = next(mbqTrain);

            % Convert mini-batch of data to dlarray and specify the dimension labels
            % "SSCB" (spatial, spatial, channel, batch)
            imageLD = dlarray(imageLD,"SSCB");
            imageHD = dlarray(imageHD,"SSCB");

            % If training on a GPU, then convert data to gpuArray
            if canUseGPU
                imageLD = gpuArray(imageLD);
                imageHD = gpuArray(imageHD);
            end

            % Calculate the loss and gradients
            [genHD2LDGrad,genLD2HDGrad,discrXGrad,discYGrad, ...
                genHD2LDState,genLD2HDState,scores,imagesOutLD2HD,imagesOutHD2LD] = ...
                dlfeval(@modelGradients,genLD2HD,genHD2LD, ...
                discLD,discHD,imageHD,imageLD,lambda);
            genHD2LD.State = genHD2LDState;
            genLD2HD.State = genLD2HDState;

            % Update parameters of discLD, which distinguishes
            % the generated low-dose CT images from real low-dose CT images
            [discLD.Learnables,avgGradDiscLD,avgSqGradDiscLD] = ...
                adamupdate(discLD.Learnables,discrXGrad,avgGradDiscLD, ...
                avgSqGradDiscLD,iteration,learnRate,gradientDecay,squaredGradientDecayFactor);

            % Update parameters of discHD, which distinguishes
            % the generated high-dose CT images from real high-dose CT images
            [discHD.Learnables,avgGradDiscHD,avgSqGradDiscHD] = ...
                adamupdate(discHD.Learnables,discYGrad,avgGradDiscHD, ...
                avgSqGradDiscHD,iteration,learnRate,gradientDecay,squaredGradientDecayFactor);

            % Update parameters of genHD2LD, which
            % generates low-dose CT images from high-dose CT images
            [genHD2LD.Learnables,avgGradGenHD2LD,avgSqGradGenHD2LD] = ...
                adamupdate(genHD2LD.Learnables,genHD2LDGrad,avgGradGenHD2LD, ...
                avgSqGradGenHD2LD,iteration,learnRate,gradientDecay,squaredGradientDecayFactor);
                        
            % Update parameters of genLD2HD, which
            % generates high-dose CT images from low-dose CT images
            [genLD2HD.Learnables,avgGradGenLD2HD,avgSqGradGenLD2HD] = ...
                adamupdate(genLD2HD.Learnables,genLD2HDGrad,avgGradGenLD2HD, ...
                avgSqGradGenLD2HD,iteration,learnRate,gradientDecay,squaredGradientDecayFactor);
                        
            % Update the plots of network scores
            updateTrainingPlotLD2HDCT(scores,iteration,epoch,start,scoreAxesX,scoreAxesY,...
                lineScoreGenLD2HD,lineScoreGenD2LD, ...
                lineScoreDiscHD,lineScoreDiscLD)

            %  Every validationFrequency iterations, display a batch of
            %  generated images using the held-out generator input
            if mod(iteration,validationFrequency) == 0 || iteration == 1
                 displayGeneratedLD2HDCTImages(mbqVal,imageAxes,genLD2HD,genHD2LD);
            end
        end

        % Save the model after each epoch
        if canUseGPU
            [genLD2HD,genHD2LD,discLD,discHD] = ...
                gather(genLD2HD,genHD2LD,discLD,discHD);
        end
        generatorHighDoseToLowDose = genHD2LD;
        generatorLowDoseToHighDose = genLD2HD;
        discriminatorLowDose = discLD;
        discriminatorHighDose = discHD;    
        modelDateTime = string(datetime("now",Format="yyyy-MM-dd-HH-mm-ss"));
        save(checkpointDir+filesep+"LD2HDCTCycleGAN-"+modelDateTime+"-Epoch-"+epoch+".mat", ...
            'generatorLowDoseToHighDose','generatorHighDoseToLowDose', ...
            'discriminatorLowDose','discriminatorHighDose');
    end
    
    % Save the final model
    modelDateTime = string(datetime('now','Format',"yyyy-MM-dd-HH-mm-ss"));
    save(checkpointDir+filesep+"trainedLD2HDCTCycleGANNet-"+modelDateTime+".mat", ...
        'generatorLowDoseToHighDose','generatorHighDoseToLowDose', ...
        'discriminatorLowDose','discriminatorHighDose');

else
    trainedCycleGANNetURL = "https://www.mathworks.com/supportfiles/vision/data/trainedLD2HDCTCycleGANNet.mat";
    netDir = fullfile(tempdir,"LD2HDCT");
    downloadTrainedLD2HDCTCycleGANNet(trainedCycleGANNetURL,netDir);
    load(fullfile(netDir,"trainedLD2HDCTCycleGANNet.mat"));
end

Generate New Images Using Test Data

Define the number of test images to use for calculating quality metrics. Randomly select two test images to display.

numTest = timdsTestLD.numpartitions;
numImagesToDisplay = 2;
idxImagesToDisplay = randi(numTest,1,numImagesToDisplay);

Initialize variables to calculate PSNR and SSIM.

origPSNR = zeros(numTest,1);
generatedPSNR = zeros(numTest,1);
origSSIM = zeros(numTest,1);
generatedSSIM = zeros(numTest,1);

To generate new translated images, use the predict (Deep Learning Toolbox) function. Read images from the test data set and use the trained generators to generate new images.

for idx = 1:numTest
    imageTestLD = read(timdsTestLD);
    imageTestHD = read(timdsTestHD);
    
    imageTestLD = cat(4,imageTestLD{1});
    imageTestHD = cat(4,imageTestHD{1});

    % Convert mini-batch of data to dlarray and specify the dimension labels
    % 'SSCB' (spatial, spatial, channel, batch)
    imageTestLD = dlarray(imageTestLD,'SSCB');
    imageTestHD = dlarray(imageTestHD,'SSCB');

    % If running on a GPU, then convert data to gpuArray
    if canUseGPU
        imageTestLD = gpuArray(imageTestLD);
        imageTestHD = gpuArray(imageTestHD);
    end

    % Generate translated images
    generatedImageHD = predict(generatorLowDoseToHighDose,imageTestLD);
    generatedImageLD = predict(generatorHighDoseToLowDose,imageTestHD);

    % Display a few images to visualize the network responses
     if ismember(idx,idxImagesToDisplay)
         figure
         origImLD = rescale(extractdata(imageTestLD));
         genImHD = rescale(extractdata(generatedImageHD));
         montage({origImLD,genImHD},Size=[1 2],BorderSize=5)
         title("Original LDCT Test Image "+idx+" (Left), Generated HDCT Image (Right)")
    end
    
    origPSNR(idx) = psnr(imageTestLD,imageTestHD);
    generatedPSNR(idx) = psnr(generatedImageHD,imageTestHD);
    
    origSSIM(idx) = multissim(imageTestLD,imageTestHD);
    generatedSSIM(idx) = multissim(generatedImageHD,imageTestHD);
end

Calculate the average PSNR of the original and generated images. A larger PSNR value indicates better image quality.

disp("Average PSNR of original images: "+mean(origPSNR,"all"));
Average PSNR of original images: 20.4045
disp("Average PSNR of generated images: "+mean(generatedPSNR,"all"));
Average PSNR of generated images: 27.9155

Calculate the average SSIM of the original and generated images. An SSIM value closer to 1 indicates better image quality.

disp("Average SSIM of original images: "+mean(origSSIM,"all"));
Average SSIM of original images: 0.76651
disp("Average SSIM of generated images: "+mean(generatedSSIM,"all"));
Average SSIM of generated images: 0.90194

Supporting Functions

Model Gradients Function

The function modelGradients takes as input the two generator and discriminator dlnetwork objects and a mini-batch of input data. The function returns the gradients of the loss with respect to the learnable parameters in the networks and the scores of the four networks. Because the discriminator outputs are not in the range [0, 1], the modelGradients function applies the sigmoid function to convert discriminator outputs into probability scores.

function [genHD2LDGrad,genLD2HDGrad,discLDGrad,discHDGrad, ...
    genHD2LDState,genLD2HDState,scores,imagesOutLDAndHDGenerated,imagesOutHDAndLDGenerated] = ...
    modelGradients(genLD2HD,genHD2LD,discLD,discHD,imageHD,imageLD,lambda)

% Translate images from one domain to another: low-dose to high-dose and
% vice versa
[imageLDGenerated,genHD2LDState] = forward(genHD2LD,imageHD);
[imageHDGenerated,genLD2HDState] = forward(genLD2HD,imageLD);

% Calculate predictions for real images in each domain by the corresponding
% discriminator networks
predRealLD = forward(discLD,imageLD);
predRealHD = forward(discHD,imageHD);

% Calculate predictions for generated images in each domain by the
% corresponding discriminator networks
predGeneratedLD = forward(discLD,imageLDGenerated);
predGeneratedHD = forward(discHD,imageHDGenerated);

% Calculate discriminator losses for real images
discLDLossReal = lossReal(predRealLD);
discHDLossReal = lossReal(predRealHD);

% Calculate discriminator losses for generated images
discLDLossGenerated = lossGenerated(predGeneratedLD);
discHDLossGenerated = lossGenerated(predGeneratedHD);

% Calculate total discriminator loss for each discriminator network
discLDLossTotal = 0.5*(discLDLossReal + discLDLossGenerated);
discHDLossTotal = 0.5*(discHDLossReal + discHDLossGenerated);

% Calculate generator loss for generated images
genLossHD2LD = lossReal(predGeneratedLD);
genLossLD2HD = lossReal(predGeneratedHD);

% Complete the round-trip (cycle consistency) outputs by applying the
% generator to each generated image to get the images in the corresponding
% original domains
cycleImageLD2HD2LD = forward(genHD2LD,imageHDGenerated);
cycleImageHD2LD2HD = forward(genLD2HD,imageLDGenerated);

% Calculate cycle consistency loss between real and generated images
cycleLossLD2HD2LD = cycleConsistencyLoss(imageLD,cycleImageLD2HD2LD,lambda);
cycleLossHD2LD2HD = cycleConsistencyLoss(imageHD,cycleImageHD2LD2HD,lambda);

% Calculate identity outputs
identityImageLD = forward(genHD2LD,imageLD);
identityImageHD = forward(genLD2HD,imageHD);
 
% Calculate fidelity loss (SSIM) between the identity outputs
fidelityLossLD = mean(1-multissim(identityImageLD,imageLD),"all");
fidelityLossHD = mean(1-multissim(identityImageHD,imageHD),"all");

% Calculate total generator loss
genLossTotal = genLossHD2LD + cycleLossHD2LD2HD + ...
    genLossLD2HD + cycleLossLD2HD2LD + fidelityLossLD + fidelityLossHD;

% Calculate scores of generators
genHD2LDScore = mean(sigmoid(predGeneratedLD),"all");
genLD2HDScore = mean(sigmoid(predGeneratedHD),"all");

% Calculate scores of discriminators
discLDScore = 0.5*mean(sigmoid(predRealLD),"all") + ...
    0.5*mean(1-sigmoid(predGeneratedLD),"all");
discHDScore = 0.5*mean(sigmoid(predRealHD),"all") + ...
    0.5*mean(1-sigmoid(predGeneratedHD),"all");

% Combine scores into cell array
scores = {genHD2LDScore,genLD2HDScore,discLDScore,discHDScore};

% Calculate gradients of generators
genLD2HDGrad = dlgradient(genLossTotal,genLD2HD.Learnables,'RetainData',true);
genHD2LDGrad = dlgradient(genLossTotal,genHD2LD.Learnables,'RetainData',true);

% Calculate gradients of discriminators
discLDGrad = dlgradient(discLDLossTotal,discLD.Learnables,'RetainData',true);
discHDGrad = dlgradient(discHDLossTotal,discHD.Learnables);

% Return mini-batch of images transforming low-dose CT into high-dose CT
imagesOutLDAndHDGenerated = {imageLD,imageHDGenerated};

% Return mini-batch of images transforming high-dose CT into low-dose CT
imagesOutHDAndLDGenerated = {imageHD,imageLDGenerated};
end

Loss Functions

Specify MSE loss functions for real and generated images.

function loss = lossReal(predictions)
    loss = mean((1-predictions).^2,"all");
end

function loss = lossGenerated(predictions)
    loss = mean((predictions).^2,"all");
end

Specify cycle consistency loss functions for real and generated images.

function loss = cycleConsistencyLoss(imageReal,imageGenerated,lambda)
    loss = mean(abs(imageReal-imageGenerated),"all") * lambda;
end

References

[1] Zhu, Jun-Yan, Taesung Park, Phillip Isola, and Alexei A. Efros. “Unpaired Image-to-Image Translation Using Cycle-Consistent Adversarial Networks.” In 2017 IEEE International Conference on Computer Vision (ICCV), 2242–51. Venice: IEEE, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICCV.2017.244.

[2] McCollough, Cynthia, Baiyu Chen, David R Holmes III, Xinhui Duan, Zhicong Yu, Lifeng Yu, Shuai Leng, and Joel Fletcher. “Low Dose CT Image and Projection Data (LDCT-and-Projection-Data).” The Cancer Imaging Archive, 2020. https://doi.org/10.7937/9NPB-2637.

[3] Grants EB017095 and EB017185 (Cynthia McCollough, PI) from the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering.

[4] Clark, Kenneth, Bruce Vendt, Kirk Smith, John Freymann, Justin Kirby, Paul Koppel, Stephen Moore, et al. “The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA): Maintaining and Operating a Public Information Repository.” Journal of Digital Imaging 26, no. 6 (December 2013): 1045–57. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10278-013-9622-7.

[5] You, Chenyu, Qingsong Yang, Hongming Shan, Lars Gjesteby, Guang Li, Shenghong Ju, Zhuiyang Zhang, et al. “Structurally-Sensitive Multi-Scale Deep Neural Network for Low-Dose CT Denoising.” IEEE Access 6 (2018): 41839–55. https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2858196.

See Also

| | | | (Deep Learning Toolbox) | (Deep Learning Toolbox) | (Deep Learning Toolbox) | (Deep Learning Toolbox)

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