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Compress Machine Fault Recognition Neural Network Using Projection

In this example, you compress a pretrained acoustics-based machine fault recognition neural network using projection and principal component analysis. Then, you generate C++ code from the compressed neural network.

To learn how the deep learning model was trained, see Acoustics-Based Machine Fault Recognition.

For a detailed example on deploying the machine fault recognition system to a hardware target, refer to Acoustics-Based Machine Fault Recognition Code Generation on Raspberry Pi.


  • MATLAB Coder Interface for Deep Learning Libraries

For supported versions of libraries and for information about setting up environment variables, see Prerequisites for Deep Learning with MATLAB Coder (MATLAB Coder).

Data Preparation

Download and unzip the air compressor data set [1]. This data set consists of recordings from air compressors in a healthy state or one of seven faulty states.

downloadFolder = matlab.internal.examples.downloadSupportFile("audio","AirCompressorDataset/");
dataFolder = tempdir;
dataset = fullfile(dataFolder,"AirCompressorDataset");

Create Training and Validation Datastores

Create an audioDatastore object to manage the data and split it into training and validation sets.

ads = audioDatastore(dataset,IncludeSubfolders=true);

The data labels are encoded in their containing folder name. To split the data into train and test sets, use folders2labels and splitlabels.

lbls = folders2labels(ads.Files);
idxs = splitlabels(lbls,0.9);

adsTrain = subset(ads,idxs{1});
labelsTrain = lbls(idxs{1});
adsValidation = subset(ads,idxs{2});
labelsValidation = lbls(idxs{2});

Call countlabels to inspect the distribution of labels in the train and validation sets.

ans=8×3 table
      Label      Count    Percent
    _________    _____    _______

    Bearing       203      12.5  
    Flywheel      203      12.5  
    Healthy       203      12.5  
    LIV           203      12.5  
    LOV           203      12.5  
    NRV           203      12.5  
    Piston        203      12.5  
    Riderbelt     203      12.5  

ans=8×3 table
      Label      Count    Percent
    _________    _____    _______

    Bearing       22       12.5  
    Flywheel      22       12.5  
    Healthy       22       12.5  
    LIV           22       12.5  
    LOV           22       12.5  
    NRV           22       12.5  
    Piston        22       12.5  
    Riderbelt     22       12.5  

Extract Training and Validation Features

Extract a set of acoustic features used as inputs to the network. The extraction process is identical to the approach in Acoustics-Based Machine Fault Recognition.

windowLength = 512;
overlapLength = 0;

[~,info] = read(adsTrain);
fs = info.SampleRate;
aFE = audioFeatureExtractor(SampleRate=fs, ...
    spectralCentroid=true, ...
    spectralCrest=true, ...
    spectralDecrease=true, ...
    spectralEntropy=true, ...
    spectralFlatness=true, ...
    spectralFlux=false, ...
    spectralKurtosis=true, ...
    spectralRolloffPoint=true, ...
    spectralSkewness=true, ...
    spectralSlope=true, ...

Extract training features.

trainFeatures = cell(1,numel(adsTrain.Files));
for index = 1:numel(adsTrain.Files)
    data = read(adsTrain);
    trainFeatures{index} = (extract(aFE,data))';

Similarly, extract validation features.

validationFeatures = cell(1,numel(adsValidation.Files));
for index = 1:numel(adsValidation.Files)
    data = read(adsValidation);
    validationFeatures{index} = (extract(aFE,data))';

Load Pretrained Network

Load the pretrained network. To learn how the deep learning model was trained, see Acoustics-Based Machine Fault Recognition.

load airCompressorNet

Display the network layers.

ans = 
  6×1 Layer array with layers:

     1   'sequenceinput'   Sequence Input    Sequence input with 10 dimensions
     2   'lstm_1'          LSTM              LSTM with 100 hidden units
     3   'dropout'         Dropout           20% dropout
     4   'lstm_2'          LSTM              LSTM with 100 hidden units
     5   'fc'              Fully Connected   8 fully connected layer
     6   'softmax'         Softmax           softmax

Analyze Neuron Activations for Compression Using Projection

You use principal component analysis (PCA) to identify the subspace of learnable parameters that result in the highest variance in neuron activations by analyzing the network activations using the training data set. This analysis requires only the predictors of the training data to compute the network activations. It does not require the training targets.

First, create a minibatchqueue object.

  • Specify a mini-batch size of 16.

  • Specify that the output data has format "CTB" (channel, time, batch).

miniBatchSize  = 16;
mbqTrain = minibatchqueue(...
    MiniBatchSize=miniBatchSize ,...

Create a neuronPCA object. To view information about the steps of the neuron PCA algorithm, set the VerbosityLevel option to "steps".

npca = neuronPCA(netOriginal,mbqTrain,VerbosityLevel="steps");
Using solver mode "direct".
Computing covariance matrices for activations connected to: "lstm_1/in","lstm_1/out","lstm_2/in","lstm_2/out","fc/in","fc/out"
Computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors for activations connected to: "lstm_1/in","lstm_1/out","lstm_2/in","lstm_2/out","fc/in","fc/out"
neuronPCA analyzed 3 layers: "lstm_1","lstm_2","fc"

View the properties of the neuronPCA object.

npca = 
  neuronPCA with properties:

                  LayerNames: ["lstm_1"    "lstm_2"    "fc"]
      ExplainedVarianceRange: [0 1]
    LearnablesReductionRange: [0 0.9775]
            InputEigenvalues: {[10×1 double]  [100×1 double]  [100×1 double]}
           InputEigenvectors: {[10×10 double]  [100×100 double]  [100×100 double]}
           OutputEigenvalues: {[100×1 double]  [100×1 double]  [8×1 double]}
          OutputEigenvectors: {[100×100 double]  [100×100 double]  [8×8 double]}

Project Network

If you want to compress a network so that it meets specific hardware memory requirements, then you can manually calculate the reduction value such that the compressed network is of the desired size.

Specify a target memory requirement of 256 kilobytes (256×1024 bytes).

targetMemorySize = 256*1024
targetMemorySize = 262144

Calculate the memory size of the original network (in bytes) using the parameterMemory helper function.

memorySizeOriginal = parameterMemory(netOriginal)
memorySizeOriginal = 502432

Calculate the factor to reduce the learnable parameters by such that the resulting network meets the memory requirements.

reductionGoal = 1 - (targetMemorySize/memorySizeOriginal);

Project the network using the compressNetworkUsingProjection function and set the LearnablesReductionGoal option to the calculated reduction factor.

netProjected = compressNetworkUsingProjection(netOriginal,npca, ...
Compressed network has 48.0% fewer learnable parameters.
Projection compressed 3 layers: "lstm_1","lstm_2","fc"

Calculate the memory size of the projected network using the parameterMemory function. Notice that the value is very close to the target memory size.

memorySizeProjected = parameterMemory(netProjected)
memorySizeProjected = 261328

Test Projected Network

Get the expected validation set labels.

validationLabels = folders2labels(adsValidation.Files);
classNames = unique(validationLabels);

Create a mini-batch queue using the same steps as the training data.

mbqValidation = minibatchqueue(...
    MiniBatchSize=miniBatchSize ,...

For comparison, calculate the classification accuracy of the original network using the test data and the modelPredictions function.

YTest = modelPredictions(netOriginal,mbqValidation,string(classNames));
TTest = validationLabels;
accOriginal = mean(YTest == TTest)
accOriginal = 0.8807

View the confusion chart for the validation data.

confusionchart(YTest,TTest, ...
    Title="Accuracy: " + accOriginal*100 + " (%)");

Calculate the classification accuracy of the projected network using the test data and the modelPredictions function.

YTest = modelPredictions(netProjected,mbqValidation,string(classNames));
accProjected = mean(YTest == TTest)
accProjected = 0.8409

View the confusion matrix of the projected network.

confusionchart(YTest,TTest, ...
    Title="Accuracy: " + accProjected*100 + " (%)");

Compare the accuracy and the memory size of each network in a bar chart. Notice that memory size has been significantly reduced, with a relatively slight reduction in accuracy.


bar([accOriginal accProjected])
xticklabels(["Original" "Projected"])
ylabel("Accuracy (%)")

bar([memorySizeOriginal memorySizeProjected])
xticklabels(["Original" "Projected"])
yline(targetMemorySize,"r--","Memory Requirement")
ylabel("Memory (bytes)")
title("Memory Size")

Fine Tune Projected Network

Compressing a network using projection typically reduces the network accuracy. You can improve the accuracy by retraining the network (also known as fine tuning the network).

To define hyperparameters for the network, use trainingOptions.

miniBatchSize = 128;
trainLabels = folders2labels(adsTrain.Files);
validationFrequency = floor(numel(trainFeatures)/miniBatchSize);
options = trainingOptions("adam", ...
    MiniBatchSize=miniBatchSize, ...
    MaxEpochs=35, ...
    Plots="training-progress", ...
    Verbose=false, ...
    Shuffle="every-epoch", ...
    LearnRateSchedule="piecewise", ...
    LearnRateDropPeriod=30, ...
    LearnRateDropFactor=0.1, ...
    ValidationData={validationFeatures,validationLabels}, ...
    InputDataFormats = "CTB")
options = 
  TrainingOptionsADAM with properties:

             GradientDecayFactor: 0.9000
      SquaredGradientDecayFactor: 0.9990
                         Epsilon: 1.0000e-08
                InitialLearnRate: 1.0000e-03
                       MaxEpochs: 35
               LearnRateSchedule: 'piecewise'
             LearnRateDropFactor: 0.1000
             LearnRateDropPeriod: 30
                   MiniBatchSize: 128
                         Shuffle: 'every-epoch'
                      WorkerLoad: []
             CheckpointFrequency: 1
         CheckpointFrequencyUnit: 'epoch'
                  SequenceLength: 'longest'
            DispatchInBackground: 0
                L2Regularization: 1.0000e-04
         GradientThresholdMethod: 'l2norm'
               GradientThreshold: Inf
                         Verbose: 0
                VerboseFrequency: 50
                  ValidationData: {{1×176 cell}  [176×1 categorical]}
             ValidationFrequency: 12
              ValidationPatience: Inf
                  CheckpointPath: ''
            ExecutionEnvironment: 'auto'
                       OutputFcn: []
                         Metrics: []
                           Plots: 'training-progress'
            SequencePaddingValue: 0
        SequencePaddingDirection: 'right'
                InputDataFormats: {'CTB'}
               TargetDataFormats: "auto"
         ResetInputNormalization: 1
    BatchNormalizationStatistics: 'auto'
                   OutputNetwork: 'last-iteration'

To train the network, use trainnet.

fineTunedNet = trainnet(trainFeatures,trainLabels,netProjected,"crossentropy",options);

Test Fine-Tuned Network

Calculate the classification accuracy of the fine-tuned network.

YTest = modelPredictions(fineTunedNet,mbqValidation,string(classNames));
accProjected = mean(YTest == TTest)
accProjected = 0.8864

View the confusion matrix of the fine-tuned network.

confusionchart(YTest,TTest, ...
    Title="Accuracy: " + accProjected*100 + " (%)");

Generate C++ Code from Fine-Tuned Network

You can generate C++ code from a machine fault recognition system that leverages the fine-tuned, compressed network.

The fault recognition system is comprised of two parts:

  • Feature extraction.

  • Network inference.

Create MATLAB Function Compatible with C/C++ Code Generation

Use the generateMATLABFunction method of audioFeatureExtractor to generate a MATLAB function compatible with C/C++ code generation. Specify IsStreaming as true so that the generated function is optimized for stream processing.

filename = fullfile(pwd,"extractAudioFeatures");

Combine Streaming Feature Extraction and Classification

When you compress a network using the compressNetworkUsingProjection function, the software replaces layers that support projection with ProjectedLayer objects that contain the equivalent neural network. To replace ProjectedLayer objects with the corresponding neural networks, use the unpackProjectedLayers function.

fineTunedNet = unpackProjectedLayers(fineTunedNet);

Save the fine-tuned network to a MAT file.

save fineTunedNet.mat fineTunedNet

Create a function that combines the feature extraction and deep learning classification.

type detectAirCompressorFault.m
function scores = detectAirCompressorFault(audioIn)
%  DETECTAIRCOMPRESSORFAULT This is a streaming classifier function
persistent airCompNet
if isempty(airCompNet)
    airCompNet = coder.loadDeepLearningNetwork('fineTunedNet.mat');
% Extract features using function
features = extractAudioFeatures(audioIn);
% Classify
scores = predict(airCompNet,dlarray(features,'CTB'));

Generate C++ Code

Create a code generation configuration object to generate an executable program. Specify the target language as C++.

cfg = coder.config("mex");
cfg.TargetLang = "C++";

Create a configuration object for deep learning code generation.

dlcfg = coder.DeepLearningConfig(TargetLibrary="none");
cfg.DeepLearningConfig = dlcfg;

Call the codegen (MATLAB Coder) function from MATLAB Coder to generate C++ code. Set the input audio frame length to 512 samples.

audioFrame = ones(512,1,"single");
codegen -config cfg detectAirCompressorFault -args {audioFrame} -report
Code generation successful: View report

For a more detailed example on deploying the machine fault recognition system to a hardware target, refer to Acoustics-Based Machine Fault Recognition Code Generation on Raspberry Pi.

Supporting Functions

function Y = modelPredictions(net,mbq,classNames)
Y = [];

while hasdata(mbq)
    X = next(mbq);

    scores = predict(net,X);

    labels = onehotdecode(scores,classNames,1)';

    Y = [Y; labels];%#ok

function N = numLearnables(net)
N = 0;
for i = 1:size(net.Learnables,1)
    N = N + numel(net.Learnables.Value{i});

function numBytes = parameterMemory(net)
numBytes = 4*numLearnables(net);


[1] Verma, Nishchal K., et al. "Intelligent Condition Based Monitoring Using Acoustic Signals for Air Compressors." IEEE Transactions on Reliability, vol. 65, no. 1, Mar. 2016, pp. 291–309. (Crossref), doi:10.1109/TR.2015.2459684.

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