Main Content

Array Geometries and Analysis

Uniform linear arrays (ULA), uniform rectangular arrays (URA), uniform circular arrays (UCA), conformal arrays, subarrays, array response, steering vectors

Phased arrays consist of antenna or microphone elements arranged into regular patterns. Common array types include uniform linear arrays, uniform rectangular arrays, and uniform circular arrays. You can also build arrays with arbitrary geometries by using conformal arrays. For many examples of the kinds of arrays that the toolbox supports, see Phased Array Gallery. The toolbox includes System objects for building arrays composed of subarrays and partitioned arrays. You can model array perturbations and mutual coupling between elements and create heterogeneous arrays with different element types. You can incorporate Phased Array System Toolbox™ or Antenna Toolbox™ antenna elements in your arrays. Methods let you plot array directivity and other radiation patterns. You can also create and use steering vectors for dynamic array pointing. You Differential weights can create frequency-invariant beam patterns and are often used in microphone arrays.


expand all

phased.ULAUniform linear array
phased.URAUniform rectangular array
phased.UCAUniform circular array
phased.ConformalArrayConformal array
phased.PartitionedArrayPartition phased array into subarrays
phased.ReplicatedSubarrayPhased array formed by replicated subarrays
phased.HeterogeneousConformalArrayHeterogeneous conformal array
phased.HeterogeneousULAHeterogeneous uniform linear array
phased.HeterogeneousURAHeterogeneous uniform rectangular array
phased.NRRectangularPanelArray5G antenna array described in 3GPP TR 38.901 specification (Since R2021a)
phased.FocusedSteeringVectorFocused sensor array steering vector (Since R2021b)
phased.SteeringVectorSensor array steering vector
phased.ElementDelaySensor array element delay estimator
phased.ArrayGainSensor array gain
phased.ArrayResponseSensor array response
phased.SphericalWavefrontArrayResponseArray response to spherical wavefront (Since R2021b)


expand all

az2broadsideConvert azimuth and elevation angle to broadside angle
broadside2azConvert broadside angle to azimuth angle
pilotcalibArray calibration using pilot sources
arrayfactorArray factor of sensor arrays (Since R2022a)
diffbfweightsDifferential beamforming weights for ULA and UCA (Since R2022a)
steervecSteering vector
taylortapercTaylor nbar taper for arrays


Steering VectorArray steering vector (Since R2023b)


polarpatternInteractive plot of radiation patterns in polar format


Sensor Array AnalyzerAnalyze beam patterns and performance characteristics of linear, planar, 3-D, and arbitrary sensor arrays


Phased Arrays

  • Uniform Linear Array
    Uniform linear arrays consist of antennas or microphones equally spaced a long a straight line.
  • Uniform Rectangular Array
    Uniform rectangular arrays consist of antennas or microphones placed on a regular 2-dimensional grid.
  • Conformal Array
    Antennas and microphones in conformal arrays can be placed anywhere in three dimensions.
  • Subarrays Within Arrays
    Subarrays are collections of elements within a larger array that can be processed as a group.

Array Patterns