# Control and Measurements

Generate pulses, transform, filter, analyze, and measure signals.

## Blocks

### Measurement

Voltage Measurement | Measure voltage in circuit |

Current Measurement | Measure current in circuit |

Three-Phase V-I Measurement | Measure three-phase currents and voltages in circuit |

Multimeter | Measure voltages and currents specified in dialog boxes of Simscape Electrical Specialized Power Systems blocks |

Impedance Measurement | Measure impedance of circuit as function of frequency |

### Analysis

Digital Flickermeter | Implement digital flickermeter as described in IEC 61000-4-15 standard |

Fourier | Perform Fourier analysis of signal |

Frequency (Phasor) | Measure phasor signal frequency |

Fundamental (PLL-Driven) | Compute fundamental value of signal |

Mean | Compute mean value of signal |

Mean (Phasor) | Compute mean value of input phasor over a running window of one cycle of specified frequency |

Mean (Variable Frequency) | Compute mean value of signal |

PMU (PLL-Based, Positive-Sequence) | Implements a phasor measurement unit using a phase-locked loop |

Positive-Sequence (PLL-Driven) | Compute positive-sequence component of three-phase signal at fundamental frequency |

Power | Compute active and reactive powers of voltage-current pair at fundamental frequency |

Power (3ph, Instantaneous) | Compute three-phase instantaneous active and reactive powers |

Power (3ph, Phasor) | Compute three-phase active and reactive powers using three-phase voltage and current phasors |

Power (PLL-Driven, Positive-Sequence) | Compute positive-sequence active and reactive powers |

Power (Phasor) | Compute active and reactive powers using voltage and current phasors |

Power (Positive-Sequence) | Compute positive-sequence active and reactive powers |

Power (dq0, Instantaneous) | Compute three-phase instantaneous active and reactive powers |

RMS | Compute true root mean square (RMS) value of signal |

Sequence Analyzer | Compute positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence components of three-phase signal |

Sequence Analyzer (Phasor) | Compute sequence components (positive, negative, and zero) of three-phase phasor signal |

THD | Compute total harmonic distortion (THD) of signal |

### Pulse and Signal Generators

Overmodulation | Add third harmonic or triplen harmonic zero-sequence signal to three-phase signal |

Pulse Generator (Thyristor) | Generate pulses for twelve-pulse and six-pulse thyristor converters |

PWM Generator (2-Level) | Generate pulses for PWM-controlled 2-level converter |

PWM Generator (3-Level) | Generate pulses for PWM-controlled three-level converter |

PWM Generator (DC-DC) | Generate pulse for PWM-controlled DC-DC converter |

PWM Generator (Interpolation) | Carrier-based unipolar PWM generation with interpolation |

PWM Generator (Multilevel) | Generate pulses for PWM-controlled modular multilevel converter |

PWM Generator (Pulse Averaging) | Carrier-based PWM generator with pulse averaging |

Sawtooth Generator | Generate sawtooth waveform at regular intervals |

Stair Generator | Generate signal changing at specified transition times |

SVPWM Generator (2-Level) | Generate pulses for SVPWM-controlled two-level converter |

SVPWM Generator (3-Level) | Generate pulses for SVPWM-controlled three-level converter |

Three-Phase Programmable Generator | Generate three-phase signal with programmable time variation of amplitude, phase, frequency, and harmonics |

Three-Phase Sine Generator | Generate three-phase balanced signal, amplitude, phase, and frequency controlled by block inputs |

Triangle Generator | Generate symmetrical triangle waveform at regular intervals |

### Transformations

Alpha-Beta-Zero to dq0, dq0 to Alpha-Beta-Zero | Perform transformation from αβ0 stationary reference frame to dq0 rotating reference frame or the inverse |

abc to Alpha-Beta-Zero, Alpha-Beta-Zero to abc | Perform transformation from three-phase (abc) signal to αβ0 stationary reference frame or the inverse |

abc to dq0, dq0 to abc | Perform transformation from three-phase (abc) signal to dq0 rotating reference frame or the inverse |

### Filters

First-Order Filter | Implement first-order filter |

Lead-Lag Filter | Implement first-order lead-lag filter |

Second-Order Filter | Implement second-order filter |

Second-Order Filter (Variable-Tuned) | Implement second-order variable-tuned filter |

### Phase Lock Loop

### Logic

Bistable | Implement prioritized S-R flip-flop (bistable multivibrator) |

Edge Detector | Detect change in logical signal state |

Monostable | Implement monostable flip-flop (one-shot multivibrator) |

On/Off Delay | Implement switch-on or switch-off delay |

### Additional Components

Sample and Hold | Sample first input and hold its value based on value of second input |

Discrete Shift Register | Implement serial-in, parallel-out shift register |

Discrete Variable Time Delay | Delay signal by variable time value |

## Functions

`power_fftscope` | Fourier analysis of simulation data signals |

`power_flicker` | Perform statistical analysis of instantaneous flicker level signal |

`power_zmeter` | Compute impedance versus frequency of Impedance Measurement blocks of model |

## Topics

**Park Transformation**Express direct axis, quadratic axis, and zero-sequence components as phase quantities using Park transforms.

**Simulate Variable Speed Motor Control**Model and discretize simple motors with specialized blocks. Use the FFT Analysis tool of the Powergui block to perform harmonic analysis.

## Featured Examples

### Three-Phase Programmable Source, V-I Measurement and Sequence Analyzer

The use of the 3-Phase Programmable Voltage Source, 3-Phase V-I Measurement, and Sequence Analyzer blocks.

### Three-Phase Programmable Source, PLL, Voltage and Power Measurement

The use of the 3-Phase Programmable Voltage Source, PLL and Variable-Frequency Positive-Sequence Voltage and Power Measurement blocks.

### Performance of Frequency Measurement (Phasor)

The use of two Frequency (Phasor) blocks to measure the frequency variation in a network following a line outage.

### Kundur's Two-Area System with PMU

The use of the PMU (PLL-Based, Positive-Sequence) block within the Kundur's Two-Area System.

### PMU (PLL-based, Positive-Sequence) Benchmark

The use of a phasor measurement unit - PMU (PLL-based, Positive-Sequence) in a benchmark circuit.

### Flickermeter Statistical Analysis Module

A method to compute short-term flicker severity of a phase-to-ground voltage taken from one feeder of a given remote community.

### Flickermeter on a Distribution STATCOM

A flickermeter model designed according to functional specifications of the international standard IEC 6100-4-15 [1].

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